Superstitions and Apotropaic Magic: From Ancient to Modern Times
28 February 2017
In the ancient world, superstitious beliefs were an important part of every day life and a serious concern for all members of society. The ancient Greek term for these superstitious beliefs was deisidaimonia. The superstitions were grounded in the belief that people, both living and dead, had the capacity to send bad luck and negative energy to other people. For the living, they could choose to do this to an enemy or someone who had offended them in some way. For the deceased, if they had not been granted proper burial or due respect, they may choose to haunt those who wronged them and bring them bad luck as punishment. Such vengeful characters and spirits are a common theme in ancient Greek tragedy.
Apotropaic magic was any form of magic designed to turn away such harm, ward off evil and deflect misfortune sent by vengeful beings. This figurine, depicting a crouching woman, was worn as an amulet for this exact purpose. An amulet (apotropaion) was any object believed to possess the power to protect its owner from negative energy, much like a good luck charm. This female figurine would have been threaded on a necklace to be worn around the neck or worn on a sash across the body. The crouching position recalls dances performed by women in ancient Greek religious rituals. In addition to being displayed on them, women often used amulets themselves for the protection of their own children, as many vases have been found that depict children wearing a variety of different talismans. Ancient Greek women therefore both participated in and used the powers of apotropaic magic.
These superstitious beliefs and their associated amulets did not perish with their ancient adherents. Rather, many have persisted into the modern world and remain an important part of numerous cultures across the globe. A number of examples can be observed here in Melbourne, particularly among the communities of Greeks and Italians. For example, a human glare intended to curse the recipient with misfortune or bad luck is known as the Evil Eye and can be averted by wearing various different amulets, usually featuring the eye symbol and the heavenly colour blue. Wearing black clothing at funerals is also an ancient superstition still observed in the modern Western world. It is believed that wearing black shows respect to the deceased and their family, while wearing bright colours would insult the deceased because it is symbolic of the light of life, which they no longer enjoy. Lastly, good luck charms and gestures are abundant in modern times. Horseshoes, acorns, four-leaf clovers, coins, crossing our fingers, ladybugs, dice, lucky numbers, the list goes on! Evidently, superstitions and apotropaic magic were important in the ancient world and still are today.
By Renee O’Brien- HM Volunteer
References and Further Reading:
Cartwright, M. 2016. “Magic in Ancient Greece.” Ancient History Encyclopaedia. http://www.ancient.eu/article/926/
Chryssanthopoulou, V. 2008. “The Evil Eye among the Greeks of Australia: Identity, Continuity and Modernization.” In Greek Magic: Ancient, Medieval and Modern, edited by J.C.P. Petropoulos, 106-118. London and New York: Routledge. http://ordenxc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Petropoulos-Greek-magic.pdf
Collins, D. 2008. “Binding Magic and Erotic Figurines.” In Magic in the Ancient Greek World, 64-103. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. http://eclass.uoa.gr/modules/document/file.php/ARCH310/Collins%20Magic%20In%20The%20Ancient%20Greek%20World.pdf
Johnston, S.I. 2008. “Magic and the Dead in Classical Greece.” In Greek Magic: Ancient, Medieval and Modern, edited by J.C.P. Petropoulos, 14-20. London and New York: Routledge. http://ordenxc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Petropoulos-Greek-magic.pdf
Marinatos, N. 2008. “Magic, Amulets and Circe.” In Greek Magic: Ancient, Medieval and Modern, edited by J.C.P. Petropoulos, 10-13. London and New York: Routledge. http://ordenxc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Petropoulos-Greek-magic.pdf
5 February 2017
These white marble pieces, captivating with their simplistic and geometric qualities, would not appear out of place in a collection of modern art. Yet, these objects were made over four thousand years ago by people living on a group of islands known as the Cyclades. Although little is known about the people that inhabited these central Aegean islands, archaeology can help piece together a picture of what life may have been like. What is revealed is a glimpse of a people who produced a stylistically iconic material culture during a time of transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.
The people who made these objects inhabited stone floored, clay brick houses in settlements positioned around sheltered, coastal bays. Small settlements surrounded larger, central trading settlements, fortified by gated walls. The small size of the islands not only limited the size of the population, each island only being able to support a few thousand people, but also limited the agricultural prospects of the islands. Despite this, the inhabitants managed to farm grain, grapes and olives as well as goats, sheep. There is also evidence they hunted deer and, of course, fished the surrounding Aegean.
What the Cyclades lacked in agricultural prospects they made up for in metallic, obsidian and marble resources. The inhabitants took advantage of these resources. The abundant supply of marble was carved with bone, stone or obsidian to create the prepossessing marble objects such as those seen here at the Museum. This was a period in which metallurgy technology was developing quickly in the region. The inhabitants of the Cyclades were well positioned to take advantage of their rich iron and copper resources within the growing industry and trade. Developing trading networks enabled the people of the Cyclades to participate in the trade of these raw and manufactured resources throughout the Aegean.
Travelling in canoe-like boats, powered by up to fifty oarsmen, the Cycladic people traded these goods throughout the Aegean to Crete, mainland Greece and as far as Anatolia (modern day Turkey) and possibly as far as Corsica. These networks also allowed for the influence of foreign ideas on Cycladic culture, much of their pottery exhibits influence from the designs of their contemporary Anatolians.
Despite each island only being able to support a few thousand people and each village only a few hundred, these settlements represent one of only four known places on Earth to produce small figurine statues at this time, the other places being Egypt, Mesopotamia and Malta. Unlike these civilisations, the Cyclades were neither heavily urbanised or displayed large-scale architecture, making the production of these objects in this region surprising.
In the third millennium BC, the end of the Early Bronze Age, the complex trading system of the Cycladic peoples collapsed possibly due to the rise of palatial civilisations on Crete and the development of long-range sailing ships that replaced the earlier oar-powered canoe model. By the early second millennium BC the culture of the Cyclades had changed dramatically and the material culture became increasingly influenced by Minoan Crete.
Although the painted features of these objects, often in red or blue, has faded over time their minimal sophistication and geometric elements continues to impact the modern viewer. These qualities also had an influence on the Modern Art movement: a sculpture by Modigliani or a painting by Picasso may come to mind. However, it is this association that has opaqued our understanding of their makers. Illegal excavations and plundering of tombs on the islands, particularly in the middle of the twentieth century, supplied an increasing demand for Cycladic objects on the international antiquities market, their context and provenance lost. The aesthetic appeal of these objects, still admired after four thousand years, that has not only obscured their meaning but has added to their mystery.
- By Hayley Stoneham, HM Volunteer
The Final Journey: Crossing the Styx
3 January 2017
In ancient Greek mythology, the Styx was one of the five rivers of the underworld, along with the Phlegethon, Acheron, Lethe and Cocytus, that all merged at the centre of the underworld. The Styx, which was also a female deity, formed the boundary between the world of the living and the world of the dead - Hades. When someone died, the psyche (spirit) of the deceased had to cross the river Styx, carried on a boat by the ferryman Charon, in order to enter the afterlife. It was therefore a very important boundary, and its crossing had to be prepared for to ensure that the deceased would successfully pass into the afterlife, or their soul would roam the shores and haunt the living until granted rest in Hades.
Preparation for the crossing took place at the deceased person’s funeral and was the responsibility of the living relatives, particularly the women, to organise for their loved one. The burial rituals consisted of three main parts. On the first day was the prosthesis – the laying out of the body. The body was washed and anointed with oil; it was then dressed and placed on a high bed within the home. During this time, relatives and friends came to mourn and pay their respects to the deceased. The mourners, dressed in black robes, were principally women. They would surround the displayed body and theatrically lament their loss: beating their breast, tearing at their hair and clothing, and chanting songs of grief known as dirge.
On the second day was the ekphora – the procession of the body through the streets to the cemetery. This usually took place before dawn. Once at the cemetery, the final phase of the customary rituals occurred – the interment of the body or its cremated remains. Proper burial according to custom was paramount. Failure to adequately bury the body was considered an insult to human dignity and threatened the deceased’s chance of passing into the underworld. Before closing the grave, libations of honey, milk, water, wine, perfumes and fruits were made, followed by a prayer. In addition, the family would typically place a few grave goods with the deceased in the grave, intended to honour the dead and assist them in the afterlife. Such items include lekythoi - perfume vases like this one, filled with perfumed oil dedicated to the deceased. They often displayed images of funerary activity, such as a woman carrying libations to a loved one’s tomb or a young bride preparing for a wedding that will never take place because she has tragically died before fulfilling this important life role. Often, relatives placed a coin or obol in the deceased’s mouth. This was intended as payment for the ferryman Charon who required a fee to transport the soul safely across the Styx. On top of the burial, a variety of monuments were also made to the deceased. Depending on the wealth of the family, these could include monumental earth mounds, gravestones, tombs, marble stelai and statues to commemorate the deceased. If the living relatives performed all these rituals correctly, the deceased would have the best chance of safely crossing the river Styx and entering into the afterlife to be at peace.
- Renee O’Brien, HM Volunteer
References and Further Reading
Department of Greek and Roman Art. 2003. “Death, Burial, and the Afterlife in Ancient Greece.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dbag/hd_dbag.htm
Howatson, M.C. 2011. “Styx (‘the Abhorrent’).” In The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Howatson, M.C. 2011. “Chāron.” In The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reilly, J. 1989. “Many Brides: ‘Mistress and Maid’ on Athenian Lekythoi.” Hesperia 58.4: 411-44. http://www.ascsa.edu.gr/pdf/uploads/hesperia/148340.pdf
Retief, F., and Cilliers, L. 2005. “Burial Customs, the Afterlife and the Pollution of Death in Ancient Greece.” Acta Theologica Supplementum 7: 44-61. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/actat/article/viewFile/52560/41166
Stevanović, L. 2009. “Funeral Ritual and Power: Farewelling the Dead in the Ancient Greek Funerary Ritual.” The Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnography of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts 57: 37-52. http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0350-0861/2009/0350-08610902037S.pdf
1 December 2016
It’s the first day of Summer in the southern hemisphere, as our northern cousins get chillier we’re breaking out our togs and sunscreen.
In Greek mythology the seasons were governed by the Horai or ‘Hours’, daughter of Zeus and Themis. Their original incarnations were as Thallo, the ‘one who brings blossoms’ Goddess of Spring, Auxo the ‘increaser of plant growth, Goddess and personification of Summer and Karpo who ‘brings food’, her name translates as ‘withering’ and she was Goddess of Autumn. Classically, only three seasons, Spring, Summer and Autumn were recognised in a year as opposed to our contemporarily held four. The belief was that nature was enshrouded in sleep or death during that cold bleak period we know of as Winter. Summer was marked as the period between the rising of Sirius the dog star, and the rising of Arcturus.
The Horai lived at the river Heridanus located in the centre of Athens. In their original conception they guarded Mount Olympus controlling the opening and closing of its gates with clouds (some say they were the personification of clouds). They were also attributed as the handmaidens of Helios (the Sun God) presiding over time both small and large, yoking and unyoking his celestial horses so the day could begin and end.
In latter incarnations though they presided over the revolution of the heavens, measuring the year by the movements of the constellations while the Moirae, their three sisters, spun the web of fate. The Horai were inseparably connected to the order and regularity of time governing each of the 12 hours in every day. These Goddesses were inextricably tied in with the shifts in nature.
The Horai were devoid of guile (or subtlety), joyous, gentle, and friendly towards mankind. In images Thallo (Spring) would appear with flowers, Auxo (Summer) with sheafs of corn and Karpo (Autumn) would bear fruits and clusters of grapes. Auxo was indicative of ‘order’, Thallo of ‘peace’, and Karpo of ‘justice’. Thallo was often depicted as a companion of Dionysos or holding the infant Ploutos (God of agricultural bountifulness), while Auxo presided over the state and Karpo over individuals.
Between them they ensured the smooth running of life and the world.
Aphrodite Goddess of Love
The Cypriot Goddess
Cyprus became the centre of cult worship for Aphrodite centred at Paphos where she was supposedly born. It is possible that this cult developed as a result of Cyprus’ contact with Phoenician traders who worshipped the goddess Ishtar, also a love and fertility goddess. From Cyprus the myths of the goddess probably spread to Greece where, over hundreds of years, they were mixed with other local beliefs until Aphrodite took on her established form. The connection between Cyprus and Aphrodite was such a strong one that ancient authors, including Homer, often referred to her simply as the Cypriot goddess.
According to Hesiod, Aphrodite’s myth begins with the goddess Gaia, the earth, creating the God Uranus, the sky, to act as her equal and mate. Every night Uranus and Gaia would make love, many gods and creatures were born from their union including the Titans, the Cyclopes, and the hundred-armed Hekatonkheires. Uranus hated the Cyclopes and feared the Hekatonkheires so he hid them away, deep in the earth causing Gaia great pain. In response Gaia crafted a plot to punish Uranus, beguiling her son Chronos to ambush him. Chronos did so, attacking his father Uranus with a sickle and castrating him. Chronos flung his father’s genitals into the sea which spread a white foam, from which a goddess arose. This goddess was Aphrodite, so named for the foam aphros from which she emerged. She came ashore on Cyprus and was attended by Eros and Desire who led her to Olympus to join the other gods.
Despite the macabre nature of her origin story not all stories associated with her are so gruesome. One of the more cheerful stories involving Aphrodite and Cyprus is that of the myth of Pygmalion. According to the most popular version written by the Roman poet Ovid in his work Metamorphosis, Pygmalion was a lonely Cypriot sculptor who lacked a wife. One day Pygmalion decided to sculpt a statue of his ideal woman. Once he finished his work the lonely Pygmalion became so enamoured with his own work that he fell in love with the statue, however, he despaired that it could not love him back. Eventually, the annual festival honouring Aphrodite came around, and Pygmalion decided to pay his respects at the altar of the goddess. When making his offering, Pygmalion secretly prayed that he could one day be blessed with a wife like his statue. It being her festival, Aphrodite was present at her altar, heard the prayer, and decided to take pity on Pygmalion. When Pygmalion came back home he decided to give the statue a kiss. To his surprise the statue felt warm to the touch, so he decided to kiss it again. Suddenly, the statue came fully to life and his prayers to Aphrodite were granted. Pygmalion and the now alive statue eventually had a daughter who they named Paphos, who according to the myth, gave her name to the city.
Capturing Bill Henson
Take a closer look at contemporary photographer Bill Henson’s work through his influences and his methods
Bill Henson’s technical and aesthetic approach sets him apart from other contemporary photographers and he cites a variety of historical painters as influences in his work. While his photographic practice has changed over time his themes and subject matter have remained relatively consistent.
Influences from master painters:
Johannes Vermeer – Dutch High Renaissance artist of 17th century (1600’s) – Bill Henson is inspired by the use of diagonal lines and windows of light in Vermeer’s interiors and portraits. This can be seen in Henson’s 1994/95 (collage) series.
Titian – Italian Renaissance artist of 16th century – the busyness and chaotic yet harmonious compositions in Titian’s group portraits and battle scenes are a visual influence and the rich tonalism of the treatment of the figure regardless whether the subject is violent or sensual.
Rembrandt – Dutch High Renaissance artist of 17th century (1600’s) – The style of lighting seen in many of Henson’s portraits, especially in The Paris Opera Project is known as chiaroscuro (an Italian term coined during the Renaissance) or Rembrandt lighting – named after one of the most famous High Renaissance portrait painters, Rembrandt. This type of lighting featured strong light on one side, which creates a shadow on the other.
Antoine Watteau – French Rococo artist of the 17th century – Watteau’s sumptuous paintings often combined landscape and groups of figures to show scenes symbolising fertility and love. His use of a warm colour scheme vignette by darker borders is seen in many of Henson’s colour landscape photographs.
Techniques, materials and processes
Studio and printing:
Bill Henson works alone in a large studio. The array of lights he owns and uses resembles a film studio. For many years he printed his own colour photographs from the negative (which was rare when most contemporary photographic artists tend to outsource their photographs because of difficulties of size and lack of access to expensive facilities).
In recent years, he has transferred from printing from the negative (analogue) to digital printing, however he still prints his own photographs. He still uses a film camera. Unlike most contemporary photographic artists, Henson shoots in film and scans the negatives. He then manipulates the images in Photoshop and other programs before printing with his own digital printer.
Bill Henson uses long exposure times for technical, aesthetic and conceptual reasons. Henson’s photos are often grainy – this is because they are either taken at night or with low lighting, requiring a fast film to balance the light reading. The graininess is also because of the enlargement process (which enlarges the grain and reduces resolution). Unlike many traditional photographers who aim for high resolution and fine detail, Henson’s use of high grain and low resolution give a textural, soft and painterly feel.
Use of colour film (C type):
Although in recent times he mainly uses colour analogue film (not digital) Bill Henson’s colour schemes are often deliberately restricted and almost monotone (black and white) or monochromatic (mostly one colour with tones and tints of that colour). He deliberately increases the cyan (blue) colour, giving a cool and foreboding aesthetic.
Dodging and burning in:
Dodging and burning in is used extensively in Henson’s photographic practice to intensify tones. When printing from a negative, this requires making masks and shapes out of card to hold over the photographic paper during printing to reduce the amount of time given to some areas of the print, and intensify others. For example, skies can be made darker in corners and areas of missed exposure corrected. Now that he has transferred to digital printing, he replaces manual dodging and burning with computer controlled dodging and burning using Photoshop tools. This process draws similarity with the painting and drawing process whereby areas are shaded in for intensity.
ONEIROI and Bill Henson’s choice of photography as an art-form
“One of the great problems with the nature of photography is that people are accustomed to seeing a photograph as authoritative evidence, as proof of something,” Bill Henson, interview with Janet Hawley, 2000.
Although Henson uses the contemporary art form of photography, his artworks are not documentary in style. The ONEIROI series is neither documentary or narrative, instead Henson desired to create a space between dream and reality. Hence the name ONEIROI. The Oneiroi are the spirits of dreams in Greek mythology who emerged each night from the land of eternal darkness beyond the rising sun. The Oneiroi passed through one of two gates (pylai). The first of these, made of horn, was the source of the prophetic god-sent dreams, while the other, constructed of ivory, was the source of dreams which were false and without meaning. The term for nightmare was melas oneiros (black dream). The series also wonders if there a particular reason they many of us cleave to a heritage to which we only have tangential links or do the physical artefacts of our histories offer a way of capturing elusive nature of belonging?
ONEIROI – the project
This series was commissioned by the Hellenic Museum and was shot by Henson on the main stairway of the former Royal Mint building. Henson chose six objects from the collection which included a 3500-year-old gold cup, a 2500-year-old gold wreath, an Ottoman period choker and a knife which once belonged to a Greek revolutionary leader during the war of independence. A Benaki Museum conservator and a Hellenic Museum curator removed the objects from the cases and placed them on the model, instructing her how best to handle the objects in order to ensure their conservation and well-being.
Using ancient techniques for new insights – the growing popularity of Socratic discussions
Around the world, people from all kinds of backgrounds are coming together to continue a tradition started by the philosopher Socrates almost 2,500 years ago. Socrates’ method of “guided conversations” helps us consider contemporary issues in a different way to what we’re used to.
The method helps participants to really engage with each other and to have prolonged and focused discussions on topics that matter. Perhaps most importantly, Socratic discussions are designed for everyday people and bring philosophy out of academia and back to the community.
The Socratic method was developed in the fifth century BC, when Socrates embarked on a mission to make Athens a better place. We don’t know exactly what motivated this mission. But we know that Socrates wanted people to reconsider their beliefs and think more deeply about right and wrong. And to make this happen, Socrates used to constantly ask questions. We’re told that Socrates would spend all of his free time asking people questions – any person in any place. From humble cobblers to leading educators and politicians, Socrates took any opportunity to question people’s ideas and to push them to think again. But the genius of Socrates was not just in asking questions – an important part of the Socratic method is asking questions of a particular sort, directed towards very particular goals.
Socrates made a number of enemies through all this questioning. In the end, he was sentenced to death by a jury of Athenians for impiety and corrupting the youth. But he also inspired many people and attracted a number of devoted followers. Socrates himself wrote nothing down. But after his death, a variety of people tried to preserve his legacy by recording the sorts of conversations that Socrates used to have. Most of these accounts have been lost, but the work of two authors has survived – Plato and Xenophon. From these accounts, especially those of Plato, we have been able to reconstruct Socrates’ method.
In recent decades, a number of scholars have adapted Socrates’ method for modern audiences. In many cities in North America and Europe, people come together to have conversations in various ways inspired by the Socratic method. The monthly Socratic Discussion Groups at the Hellenic Museum are part of that movement. A set of simple but powerful rules guides people into discussing each month’s topic through questions and answers following the Socratic method. Like the discussions of Socrates, the topics for each session are connected with how we live our lives and encourage us to question things we don’t normally think about.
The most remarkable thing about conversations following the Socratic method is that they’re very different from the sort of conversations we have in day-to- day life. This is one of the things that make Socratic discussions such a stimulating and unique experience.
There are two key elements leading to this. Firstly, Socratic discussions are guided. They happen in small groups and one person in each group has responsibility for making sure that the discussion heads towards certain goals. This means that Socratic discussions are more focused than the conversations we ordinarily have in life and they explore topics more thoroughly. The techniques very quickly guide people to thinking about issues more deeply than they’re used to and participants often discover that the topics are more complex than they ever imagined.
Secondly, an absolute rule in a Socratic discussion is that the person guiding the conversation can only ask questions. This is the most important of the rules because it forces people to really engage with each other. It means that people have to carefully listen to each other and work together to explore a topic. It takes away the competitive nature of much discussion and provides an opportunity to understand another person’s perspective much more fully than normally occurs in everyday life. Together these factors make a Socratic discussion a very different experience from what we’re used to.
Anyone can take part in a Socratic discussion. No background in philosophy or previous experience is required. The rules are very easy to learn and participants invariably find themselves stimulated by the experience.
The Hellenic Museum’s Socratic Discussion Group meets on the last Tuesday of each month, from 6.30-8.00 pm.
Dr Gribbin also teaches a course on “How to Argue Like Socrates” as part of the University of Melbourne’s annual Classics Summer School.
“Is she angry?”, “Is she waiting?”, “Is she a boss?” – these are some of the answers students on school tours give the Hellenic Museum tour guides when we ask them what the crossed arms on these figurines means. Their guesses are as good as ours!
Above: Cycladic figurine of ‘folded arm’ type, Early Cycladic II Period (2700 BCE – 2300 BCE), marble.
When visiting the Gods, Myths & Mortals exhibition you’ll come across some especially modern looking items. These are the pieces from the Cyclades island group, which lies south-east of mainland Greece. You’re wondering what pieces like this folded-arm figurine mean? So are we!
The sculptures from the Cyclades at this time (2700-2300 BCE) possess certain features – they are proportional, simplistic and have folded arms. Although now they usually appear white, they were frequently painted to add detail. Cycladic art that has lasted is not very common. In fact, only around 1400 pieces are known to exist. Despite their rarity (or perhaps because of it) the characteristic of Cycladic figurines have lasted, influencing modern art movements. Anyone familiar with 20th century art might recognise the simplicity and proportions in the distinctive works of artists such as Pablo Picasso and Henry Moore, who drew on the ancient Cycladic art style.
So Cycladic art was incredibly popular and sought after, but what does this mean for the artefacts? During the 20th century, hundreds of Early Cycladic tombs were plundered by antiquities smugglers. They removed evidence of inestimable value for archaeologists, historians, sociologists and anthropologists. The discovery of regional workshops in the Cyclades was limited by the number of artworks available to researchers and the public. Here’s where our original question comes in: what do they mean? As always, looting has had an immeasurable impact on our understanding of the Cycladic culture. Among other things, illegal trafficking has made tracing the original purpose of the figurines even harder. While scholars do have different interpretations of their purpose, without more information this can’t be certain.
Most figures were sculpted from a single piece of marble using a strong material such as emery to rub away the unwanted marble. This would have been an extremely laborious process, suggesting that the pieces played an important role to justify the effort that went into their production. We also know that fertility was a central theme in the religions of ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern civilisations. Despite serious debates, there is a general consensus that the nudity of the figurines and the focus on the breast and pubic triangle refer directly to the idea of fertility. This would also account for the nearly total absence of male statuettes. The standardised pose of most known Cycladic figurines suggests that they had some sort of ritual function. For instance, the figurine in the collection at the Hellenic Museum has its right arm folded under the left one. This was a characteristic feature and never seemed to vary. One theory supposes that this was a widely accepted symbol for divine representation across Mediterranean cultures.
But, none of these theories seem to explain the full meaning of the Cycladic figurines. What was the meaning of the small number of male figures that have been found? What was the role of the painted decorations on some of the pieces? And, why do we find them in some graves, but not in others? The recent looting and inevitable loss of the last four thousand years means we may never know the answers.
- Gabrielle Fanning, HM team
Unclasped: Discovering Contemporary Greek Jewellery
Mala Siamptani (UK)
Cypriot born designer Mala Siamptani is currently based in London, working as a freelance designer/maker as well as teaching in one of London’s most prestigious universities.
As a designer, Mala has always had an eye for the strange beauty, grandeur, mystery and dangers of nature; this appreciation is nowhere more evident than in her work. One of the aims of this collection was to see what could be achieved with the combination of new technologies (CAD, CNC machining) and traditional mold making and casting techniques.
Examining organic forms, deriving from her extensive research in microbiology, her latest collection focuses on diseased cells: bacteria, fungi and cancer cells. These cells try to take over the organism by altering cellular genetic constitution, which results in continuing to divide when they should not and so become rogue cells. Inspired by the relationship between the natural world and bilateral symmetry, her concept is to step out of the conventional jewellery/accessories context in order to develop a unique series of precious objects.
Structural Decay I 2014- 2015
Resin, metal powders, pigments, brass, semi-precious stones, cotton, silk threads
Structural Decay II 2014- 2015
Resin, metal powders, pigments, brass, semi-precious stones, cotton, silk threads
Structural Decay III 2014- 2015
Resin, metal powders, pigments, brass, semi-precious stones, cotton, silk threads
18 April 2016
Vicky Kanellopoulos (Australia)
Vicky is an Australian artist whose work explores themes based on the body, the spiritual and the surreal. She has a particular interest in the viewer’s physical interaction with her pieces when they are confronted with the nonsensical and the absurd. Sculpture is fundamental to her work in which form, shape, depth and texture all come into play. Her practice includes jewellery, sculpture and silversmithing.
This collection investigates the ways the body can be redefined and repositioned by demystifying the human form to create alternative meanings through contemporary jewellery. Using surreal humour, the works explore new forms of the body by adding fragments to cast body parts; endeavouring to empower the viewer/wearer by inviting them to reflect on the complicity of their own gaze.
Vroom, Vroom, Vroom! 2015
Oxidised sterling silver, sterling silver, paint, rubber, plastic
Sterling silver, paint, resin
The Usual Suspect 2015
Sterling silver, rubber, plastic
16 April 2016
Vivi Touloumidi (Germany)
Vivi was born and studied jewellery in Athens, at the Professional Institute of Gold/Silversmithing, before continuing her education on jewellery in Germany, at the University of Applied Arts, in Canada, at Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, and in Sweden, at Konstfack University of Arts, Crafts and Design. Her work has been exhibited in several curated gallery and museum shows throughout Europe, the United States of America, Japan and China.
Vivi’s work presents the question, What will kosmos say? In doing so, she is not asking a single question, but one that implies several interpretations. The Greek word kosmos can be translated in a number of ways: simply as the universe or the world; order, harmony or beauty; from the old Greek as jewellery; and from the neo-Greek as the people. As such the question posed can be read as ‘What will jewellery say?’ or even ‘What will the people say?’ The title of the pieces implies several interpretations and sets a bridge between adornment, self-exposure and engagement in the public domain. Vivi’s works are created out of volcanic pumice rocks, which she sculpted and textured by hand. In 2013, she received special permission to visit the quarry on the island of Yali in Greece, where she collected the rocks to be used within her work.
What will kosmos say? I 2015
Volcanic pumice stone, stainless steel
What will kosmos say? II 2015
Volcanic pumice stone, stainless steel
What will kosmos say? III 2014
Volcanic pumice stone, stainless steel
15 April 2016
Dimitris Nikolaidis (Greece)
Dimitris studied Painting at the Athens School of Fine Arts before his occupation with the design and construction of jewellery began in 1987. He was taught techniques regarding the processing of metals by the painter and jewellery maker Giota Kaliakmani, and the silver-goldsmith Christophoros Prineas. He has participated in both group and individual exhibitions in Greece, Cyprus and the United States of America. Since 1995, he has been teaching design and construction of jewellery in training workshops for adults.
Dimitris’ creations draw their inspiration from the jewellery of the ancient civilizations of the Aegean. He admires the resourcefulness and the intelligence of the anonymous prehistoric metal workers, who, with only a few tools created masterpieces. His works are designed to reflect the natural world, referencing: minerals, stones, flowers, seeds and fruit. Natural forms, their colours and textures continue to influence his artistic style. He seeks to create a sculpted object that is in discourse with the human body, but which remains aesthetically functional independently of that body, with its own autonomous existence.
Untitled (Articulated Necklace) 2011
18 carat gold
Untiled (Earrings) 2009
18 carat gold, 20 carat gold, sterling silver, enamel
13 April 2016
Nicole Polentas (Australia)
Nicole’s research is about the ways in which jewellery objects can initiate an engagement with, and understanding of, cultural place and identity. The multiplicity of identity is examined, reconfigured and reimagined on a visceral level. Jewellery becomes the space in which new associations emerge as the impetus for complex reconstruction. The body of work investigates how culture, gender and ethnicity are experienced through composite narratives of time and place. A narrative approach is applied analytically to the construction of artefact, in order to reflect, interpret and reinvent experience. The lived experience is thus ‘filled with narrative fragments, enacted in storied moments of time and space, and reflected upon and understood in terms of narrative unities and discontinuities’ (Clandinin & Connelly:2000). By activating narratives in present time, the jewellery brings forth the embodied nature of spatial and cultural experience, reframing cultural dialogue as the locus for discovery.
Quiver (γιάντα) 2016
Sterling silver, wood, resin, glass powder, paint, printed image on aluminium, epoxy
The Orientation (προσανατολισμός) 2016
Sterling silver, copper, resin, glass powder, coral, pearls, paint, alabaster, poly-putty, epoxy, acrylic
The Pass (το πέρασμα) 2016
Sterling silver, copper, gold alloy, resin, glass powder, veneer, ink, graphite, paint
11 April 2016
Maria Tsimpiskaki (Greece)
Currently living and working in Athens, Maria was born in Crete. She completed a degree at the Athens University of Economic and Business before taking up jewellery design in 1990 after attending painting, sculpting, jewellery making and design classes. Her jewellery has been exhibited in Greece, Germany, Poland, Spain, Italy, Monaco, Croatia, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Korea, the Netherlands and France.
Maria thinks of jewellery design as a combination of line, colour and material that is the result of a given frame of mind, of different mental and emotional states. Her aim is to create jewellery that is flawless in terms of construction and finish, perfectly fitting the human anatomy so that it becomes an essential and cherished accessory, setting off the personality of the wearer. Recently her work has focused on a number of dualities: dynamic and static, creativity and entropy, growth and decay, erosion and regeneration. The third series in this exploration, following on from ‘Erosion’ and ‘Corrosion – Corruption: The Negative of Dreams’, is ‘Regeneration’. In this her attention turns to the idea of rebirth as a result of the inevitable cycle of life in the world of nature, questioning whether this is also the case in the evolution of societies.
Regeneration Bracelet 2015
Sterling silver, PVC, fabric, pigments
Regeneration Brooch 2015
Sterling silver, PVC, fabric, pigments
Regeneration Necklace 2015
Sterling silver, PVC, pigments
8 April 2016
Poly Nikolopoulou (Greece)
Athenian born, Poly studied Graphic Design at Vakalo Art and Design College in Athens, and Contemporary Jewellery at Alchimia: Contemporary Jewellery School in Florence, Italy. She has also attended workshops led by renowned jewellers Professor Iris Eichenberg and Professor Peter Skubic. Poly’s works have been exhibited around the world, in Greece, Germany, Italy, the United States of America, the Netherlands, Korea, Tel Aviv, Sweden, Japan, Thailand, Latvia, Taiwan, Spain and Romania. During 2012 to 2014 she taught Creative Jewellery at Chalkis Art School. In 2015 she co-founded and became director of Krama, a contemporary jewellery school in Athens.
Tutored by the revered and lamented Manfred Bischoff, her works are abstract and sculptural, pushing the boundaries between jewellery and art object. She uses her work as a way to communicate with both her audience and herself. The process of making the works is as important as the outcome of the finished work, her use of experimentation is integral to each piece and mistakes are transformed to be embraced in the final piece. Her preferred materials are metals, like silver, which can be hammered and fired to obtain shapes and colours, which make them come alive.
5 April 2016
Zeta Tsermou (Greece)
Born in Athens, Zeta studied architecture in the National Technical University of Athens before getting her Masters degree in the Bartlett School of Architecture of University College London. Later she studied sculpture in the School of Fine Arts in Athens and has attended various workshops and seminars in jewellery making in Athens, London and Florence. She currently works as an artist and jewellery maker in her studio in Athens.
Zeta perceives her jewellery as wearable sculptures. Her collection Curve is focused on the notion of the body, both as a cultural construction and as a canvas where jewellery exists. This collection of works is a study of the female form exploring notions of femininity, motherhood and sexuality. Curves are imprinted in our subconscious together with archetypal figures of fertility, motherhood and the female form. The body is the primal figure: soft, round, and full of creases, cavities, nipples and hair and within her work Zeta attempts to reflect the qualities of the female body as mysterious, erotic, fragile and aggressive. The pieces themselves resemble body parts, made to be worn in a strangely familiar, humorous or possibly threatening way.
Curve I 2015
Copper, pigments, silver chain, acrylic paint
Curve II 2015
Copper, pigments, acrylic paint, bronze
Curve III 2015
Copper, pigments, sterling silver, acrylic paint
31 March 2016
Niki Stylianou (Greece)
Born in Athens, Niki began her studies in Architecture/Engineering at the National Technical University of Athens before attended the Royal College of Art in London, studying Communication Design/Humanities and Architecture/Interior Design. She has undertaken a number of jewellery and design courses and workshops in Italy, Greece, Finland, and the United Kingdom. Since 2004 she has been working as an artist and jewellery designer/marker in Greece. She has participated in many solo and group exhibitions in Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, Germany, Italy, the United States of America, France, and the United Kingdom. In addition to her practice, Niki also teaches workshops in her studio, covering basic silversmithing techniques, working on a concept/crating a collection, and organising a sketchbook. Niki designs adornments using ordinary and overlooked every-day objects, deconstructing them and re-arranging them into three-dimensional objects that clothe the body. Her works, while open to interpretation, speak of immaterial relationships: the precious and the non-precious, the beautiful and the ambiguous, the familiar and the unusual, the lasting and the ephemeral, the new and the old.
Rubber, thread, rhodium plated silver, rhodium plated bronze
Rubber, thread, rhodium plated silver, rhodium plated bronze
Bust piece, 2015
29 March 2016
Danae Natsis (Australia)
Concepts are intertwined with the processes employed in this series, which was made while pondering the act of creation — the roles of chance and the subconscious in the artistic process, and how shapes and meanings become manifest in an artist’s creation. The works were conceived through working with accidents & play after a period of travel through Europe, America & Greece: experiments with shape, material, process & colour; allowing these outcomes to acquire meanings that may have been present as subconscious thoughts & building on them; letting themes (islands, myths, museums & memories) evolve.
The works are about accidental creation & expression, Danae’s Greek heritage & the effects of time on objects. Automatic drawings became coastlines of Greek islands & barnacled textures of submerged ancient artefacts. Experiments with patina & pigment mimic 3000 years of oxide. Anodised niobium creates psychedelic aquatic creatures. Randomly hammered & wrinkled 3D shapes protrude like archipelagos. The meandering lines now reference journeys: ancient mythological quests, the voyages of seafaring vessels that lie wrecked beneath the waves & her own wanderings (geographical, conceptual, & temporal) discovering her heritage, path & place.
Relating to the passage of time on surfaces, metals are coloured using different kinds of oxidising techniques, like anodising niobium, blackening silver, blue/green patina on shibuichi (Japanese alloy) & copper, & adhered pigment encrustations. Shapes are arbitrarily cut from thin sheet & hammered to create three-dimensional folded & wrinkled forms. The hammered textures are then used to create the anodised patterns through a repeated process of abrading & anodising. The cut-out sections are saw-pierced without drilling. The lines are traced from the coastlines of islands & the holes marked in with closed eyes. Allowing freedom to let the object & the meaning develop naturally & playfully is important in this series.
Sterling silver, anodised niobium, shibuichi, patina, remainium
Sterling silver, 9 carat gold, anodised niobium
Sterling silver, anodised niobium, shibuichi, patina
Liana Pattihis (UK)
Originally from Nicosia, Cyprus, Liana has been living and practicing in London since 1980. With a background in Interior Design, she has been creating works of contemporary jewellery for more than ten years. Liana’s works are an innovative use of traditional enamelling method which allows her to create layered and textured works which are both organic and elegant. Her designs evolve through a dialogue between her source of inspiration and the creative potential of the enamel. Her response to the way in which the materials fuse together is intuitive and impromptu, with each layer the enamel adds form, structure and substance to the piece
This selection of works echoes the ways in which traditional Greek costumes act as a reflection of cultural heritage and are symbols of historical experience. The patterns of these costumes have inspired the design of the jewellery with the enamelled chains replacing the silhouette of the garment. The flexibility of the chain suggests the dual functionality of the jewellery, which can be presented as a linear symbol of the garment, but can also be converted when worn into a new entity as a contemporary piece of jewellery.
Silver light trace chain, enamel, stainless steel
Silver light trace chain, enamel
Adapted Patterns 2014
Silver cable chain, silver trace chain, enamel
22 March 2016
Demitra Thomloudis (USA)
Demitra is a first generation Greek-American born in Philadelphia and currently living in Ohio. She is an Assistant Professor and Head of the Jewellery/Metals/Enamelling program at Kent State University. She studied Jewellery and Metalsmithing at San Diego State University and continued her education at The Cleveland Institute of Art studying Metals and Jewellery with a secondary emphasis in Enamelling. Demitra has exhibited her work extensively throughout the United States of America and in Germany, Australia, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Greece, Austria, China, Mexico, Brazil and Canada.
Her work addresses the ways in which our bodies perpetually occupy the built environment, and attempts to reverse these roles and interactions by allowing the visual language found within constructed spaces an opportunity to intimately coexist and inhabit the body. By examining and challenging formal architectural organization, she endeavours to redefine and capture the nature of architecture within the construct of jewellery. By relating to the aesthetics of architecture in this way, she believes jewellery has the potential to closer connect us to the world that surrounds us.
Reconstructed: Framed 2013
Cement, plywood, sterling silver, nickel silver, resin, pigment, duck tape
Reconstructed: Tied 2013
Cement, plywood, sterling silver, nickel silver, resin, pigment, duck tape, fibre
Reconstructed: Tension 2013
Cement, plywood, sterling silver, nickel silver, thread, resin, pigment, duck tape
17 March 2016
Aggelika Diplari (Greece)
Aggelika was born in Sparti in 1960. Having completed her studies in Restoration in Athens in 1982, she has since worked as a freelance Art Restorer and Curator, restoring mainly museum pieces of the Minoan and Cycladic eras. In 2012 she began working as jewellery designer and maker; the transition has been a journey of self-exploration. She has discovered that contemporary jewellery acts as a medium of self-expression and the cultural identity of the maker, and the act of making has revealed new and unexpected aspects of her own personality and image of herself, especially in relation to issues that concern her or give her joy.
She views contemporary jewellery as an art form on a small scale, with no need for precious materials to make it; all that is needed is emotion and imagination. She channels her experiences and her understanding of womanhood, her losses, feelings and thoughts into her work. In this series her works use natural materials, circles and curves to imply the feminine form through which she processes the nature of what it is to be a woman.
The Female Universe 2015
Wood, argentium silver, silver, pigments, acrylic
Loss in a Positive Way 2015
Wood, argentium silver, silver, pigments, acrylic, stainless steel
Light - Truth 2015
Wood, argentium silver, silver, pigments, acrylic
15 March 2016
Artemis Valsamaki (Greece)
Born in Athens, Artemis graduated from Vakalo Arts School in 1999, where she studied micro-sculpture and jewellery making. Fascinated by the techniques and processes involved in the creation of jewellery, she pursued her studies in sivlersmithing, specialising in handmade and industrial jewellery. In September 2004 she set up her own studio and workshop, since then she has participated in various exhibitions in Greece and abroad.
Within her work, she navigates between sculpture and design, stories and meanings, images and colours, each time giving expression to a different artwork. The inspiration for her current work is the human mind and its ability to generate thoughts, ideas, myths and images that either conform to reality or do not, making them creative or destructive. Artemis takes a narrative approach to her jewellery making practice, with each piece in this collection telling an individual story. Daydreaming explores the ways in which we connect with our inner child in order to both escape from, and cope with reality. Perception of Beauty questions the statement ‘beauty is goodness’ by drawing attention to the fact that beauty is in the eye of the beholder and as such fails to be objective. Helping Hand is an allegorical representation about the limits between love that nurtures and love that destroys.
Copper, silver, acrylic paint
Perception of Beauty 2015
Copper, silver, acrylic paint
Helping Hand 2015
Copper, silver, acrylic paint
8 March 2016
Erato Kouloubi (Greece)
Erato has studied the art of jewellery extensively, graduating from Mokemu Jewellery School in Athens, specialising in Chemical Colouring and Patination of Metals at the Camberwell College of Arts in London, and studying the Manipulation of Glass at Central Saint Martins in London. Since then she has worked with the jewellery designer Yen Duong in the Cockpit Arts Centre, London, before setting up her own studio in Greece. Her pieces have been exhibited in Spain, the Netherlands, Germany, the United Kingdom and Greece.
The collection ‘Oh no! This is toxic’ directly addresses current environmental issues. The work embodies a deep concern with the ways that human activities are contaminating the world’s water systems and disrupting the lives of animals; from toxic chemical runoff to the accumulation of litter miles away from land. She has used tar as the main material in this collection in order to convey the threat, the fear and the crude death of all beings that live in nature and are condemned by humans. According to Erato, tar is commonly found on the beaches of Greece where it has been formed, by contact with the sea, into unique sculptures, which are both beautiful and deadly.
Tar, bronze, pigment, plastic bag
Two bodies cannot occupy the same place 2015
Tar, bronze, pigment, light bulb
Chocolate Mousse 2015
Tar, bronze, pigment
4 March 2016
Akis Goumas (Greece)
Akis was born in Athens and lives and works 10 kms north, in Alsoupoli. He has been involved in jewellery making practice since 1980 and has founded both a jewellery design school, and a jewellery and object company. His work is informed by his study of prehistoric gold technologies in the National Archaeological Musueum, with a team of archaeologists; the techniques of these ancient craftspeople have taught him how to decode ancient tool traces and techniques.
In his series of works he has created three-dimensional objects, using fragments of silver, steel, threads and pigments, in order to explore the nature of the beauty that exists in ugliness. He describes his works as three-dimensional compositions-objects that are designed to be worn. For him, the process of designing a piece of jewellery is a journey, a path through emotions, myth, memory and experiences. His work is a medium through which he can communicate with other people; the techniques, materials, colours and textures are the language he uses to express himself.
Mystic Blues 2015
Enigmatic Finding 2015
The Role of Time 2015
Silver, steel, threads, pigments
1 March 2016
Constantinos Kyriacou (Cyprus)
Constantinos was born in Nicosia, Cyprus, to traditional goldsmiths where the workshop became a place for imagination and creativity. He began his study of jewellery design, making and stone setting at Le Arti Orafe Jewellery School in Florence. In 2006 he attended a course at Alchimia Contemporary Jewellery School in Florence, looking at the technique of granulation. Between 2006 and 2007 he was introduced into the world of sculpture at Philippos Yiapanis Art Studio. His work has been shown in numerous solo and group exhibitions in Cyprus, Switzerland, Greece, France, Holland, Germany, the United States of America, Italy and the United Kingdom.
Constantinos considers his work to be continuous inner research. He prefers to communicate his emotions and thoughts through his pieces rather than by using words to explain them. Some of the driving forces in his work are different states of mind, the co-existence of opposites and contradictions. These are all elements in which he finds inspiration and he tries to keep a balance, moving on a fine line when expressing himself through his work. In these pieces Constantinos looks at reality and our individual perceptions of the world.
Leave Again Live Again 2010
Fine silver, sterling silver, oxidisation, acrylic colours
Sterling silver, fine gold, oxidisation, acrylic colour
27 February 2016
George Giannoutsos (Greece)
Born in 1982 in Athens, where he currently lives and works, George studied Physics at the National and Kapodistrian University. He began his training in basic silver smithing techniques at his family studio in Athens and has since participated in various technical and conceptual jewellery and sculpting courses. A member of the contemporary jewellery collective ‘Ragtag’, George investigates and experiments with innovative materials and techniques, and their implementation in jewellery making.
He believes in the expressive potential of contemporary jewellery as a means of communicating his emotional and existential concerns. While examining the surfaces of various natural organisms through a microscope, he became fascinated by the diversity of vivid colours and recurrent motives nature creates. With these images as a starting point, he chose a non-precious, consumable material as his primary cell to transform it into a structural element with endless synthetic possibilities.
Through the repetition of these elements, along with the way in which they are attached to one another, his pieces achieve an organic structure.
Plastic Life 2015 (Necklace)
Smoking filter tips, artificial resin, pigment, turquoise gemstone and obsidian rock fragments, rhodium plated bronze.
Plastic Life 2015 (Brooch II)
Smoking filter tips, artificial resin, pigment, turquoise gemstone, amethyst quartz and obsidian rock fragments, rhodium plated bronze, steel wire.
Smoking filter tips, artificial resin, pigments, obsidian rock fragments, titanium, wool.
20 February 2016
Efharis Alepedis (USA)
Efharis was born in the United States of America and she currently lives and works as a jeweller in Boston. In 1995 she received her Master of Fine Arts from the Rhode Island School of Design, with a concentration in Jewellery/Metals. In 1995 and 1996, she undertook an internship with Ilias Lalaounis, a jeweller world renowned for creating luxurious gold jewellery steeped in Greek history. She is a member of The Society of North American Goldsmiths, American Craft Council, and The Art Jewellery Forum and has been collecting contemporary jewellery for over twenty years.
Outdoor excursions, particularly those in her parent’s homeland of Greece, often instigate Efharis’ creative process. Sketching, photographing and collecting objects from nature; she surrounds herself with these objects for inspiration and often incorporates them within her work. The sea, or more specifically, marine creatures and the beauty of the deep-sea ecosystems that shelter them, are the basis of her current work, which investigates some of their forms. When creating her work, Efharis often combines materials like gold with materials such as leather, resin, silicone, silk cocoons, rubber and sea urchins. Each of these combinations possess a series of dichotomies: precious and non-precious, simple and complex, organic and inorganic, all of which are designed to create interesting dialogues within her works.
Coral Red Necklace 2014
Corals, Silicone, Pigments, Sea Glass, Slag Glass, Silk Cocoons, Epoxy Resin, Rubber, 18 carat Yellow Gold, Sterling silver
Silk Cocoon Red Necklace 2010
Red Patent Leather, Silk Cocoons, Epoxy Resin, Rubber, Sterling Silver, Magnets
Black Sea Urchin Necklace 2015
Sea Urchins, Rubber, Synthetic Fibre, Coral, 18-carat Yellow Gold
17 February 2016
Ismini Pachi (Greece)
Born in Lamia, Greece, Ismini trained as a metalsmith at the Synapeiro Jewellery School, and has been a member of Ragtag Collective since 2012. Ismini’s academic background in Psychology, as well as her interest in the human personality have inspired her to design jewellery that reveals the individual’s psyche in different emotional states.
Her intention is to visualise these emotional states and by then reflecting the opposing aspects of our personalities through the use of contrasting elements within her work: solid and drilled, concealed and evident, soft and hard, light and dark, fairy-tale and reality. What stimulates Ismini, and inspires her work, is the way in which different materials are mixed together to develop dialogue and stories, as well as how they are combined in a way that is visually, physically and emotionally pleasing.
Movement and elasticity of the materials she uses plays a crucial role in the creative process. The different parts of each piece are connected in such a way that permits maximum movement. The various shapes each piece achieves allow flexibility both with the human body and the emotional state of the wearer.
Iron, magnet, monofilament, pvc, white metal
Iron, PVC, Monofilament
13 February 2016
Christina Karakalpaki (Greece)
Born in Athens, Christina has a background in architectural studies, which has given her technical and aesthetic knowledge that she uses within her work. She has attended several seminars on jewellery design and micro-sculpture and her work has been featured in design magazines. Participating in Greek and international exhibitions, she currently maintains a workshop in Athens.
Christina’s current collection draws inspiration from the Three Moirai, or Spinners, of Greek mythology. These three sisters, Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos, personify fate and the interwoven web, which inexorably bind humans to their future, and are responsible for allotting each person with their time upon this Earth. Despite the inevitability of the thread of life being spun, measured and cut by the sisters, people still have the freedom to define the tapestry of their own life. The myth of the Three Moirai opens a dialogue between what is and what may be, and it is this that Christina hopes to embody within her work. Christina’s work is designed to combine the work and the act of wearing with utility and cultural value, and achieves this through persistence and constant experimentation. What is important to her is that her work has aesthetic integrity, consistency and purity in its structure.
Leather, nylon, bronze
Leather, inkjet printed canvas, nylon, thread
Leather, aluminium, cotton thread, Polaris, safety pins
11 February 2016
Anastasia Kandaraki (Greece)
Having grown up in a family of Goldsmiths, Anastasia began experimenting with jewellery in her father’s workshop. In 2006 she decided to begin her studies into the art of jewellery, studying at the silversmithing and jewellery design school Mokume in Athens and, later, at the Alchimia School in Italy. Since 2008 she has participated in exhibitions both in Greece and abroad. In 2011, she created Anamma studio, where she teaches and organises contemporary jewellery seminars and exhibitions. For Anastasia value of contemporary jewelry comes from the idea and the message it attempts to communicate. The human body plays a significant role in the realization of the message, becoming a place of expression and exhibition.
Growing up in Athens she was continually surrounded by remnants of the past, as such her work is influenced by abandoned, crumbling buildings, which show the marks of time. These buildings, while in a state of deterioration and exposure, still maintain their own stories, which she hopes to emulate within her works. For Anastasia this physical decay has a distinct parallel with the current situation in Greece, in which society is both falling apart but also has the potential to emerge from the chrysalis and become something beautiful once more.
Living Ruins I 2015
Oxidised sterling silver, stainless steel
Living Ruins II 2015
Oxidised sterling silver, stainless steel
Living Ruins III 2015
14 carat yellow gold, oxidised sterling silver
16 October 2015
The Archaeological Process
We dig a little deeper into archaeology in celebration of International Archaeology Day.
The Amphipolis Tomb: the perimeter consists of multiple levels of stone. Total height of the perimeter wall is 3 meters.
Archaeological Excavation Techniques
The ultimate aim of archaeology is to reconstruct and interpret the changing patterns of past human behaviour and culture. To accomplish this effectively, archaeologists often work with specialists in other disciplines in order to recover, record, analyse, and classify archaeological material.
Following the discovery of radiocarbon dating there was a veritable revolution in the study of antiquity. Archaeology began to adopt a battery of analytical techniques from the natural and physical sciences, these analyses are not an end in themselves, they merely add precision and facilitate the reconstruction and explanation of past human life and culture.
Arguably the most important concept in archaeology is context. Knowing the provenience of a find – its position within a sedimentary layer and its association with other finds – is crucially important because it enables archaeologists to recognise patterns of human behaviour. Objects removed from context have less archaeological value and are often a result of looting and the trade in illegal antiquities.
Before any field campaigns are untaken, whether field survey or excavation, it is important to design a research program with clear objectives and timelines. This is especially significant for archaeology because projects often involve many collaborators from different fields. The method must be clearly delineated because archaeology is a mono-directional study. Once a layer of information has been removed it is essentially destroyed.
Locating and recording sites is the first step in archaeological fieldwork. Sites are located either by ground reconnaissance (field-walking); aerial reconnaissance (data collected from space or the air) or a combination of both. Field-walking is the oldest and still most effective procedure of discovering new sites. Archaeologists should be able to observe fluctuations in the nature of the landscape and recognise ancient artefacts (such as pot sherds, flint tools, building debris) lying on the surface, which have eroded from a site.
Arial photographs and satellite images are often used as a supplement to field-walking. For teams who can afford it, satellite imaging is increasingly being used to identify potential buried landscapes with astonishing precision. These are particularly useful in regions, which are difficult to reach, too large to field-walk or in conflict zones too dangerous to visit.
By combining and processing images archaeologists are able to see into the infrared part of the light spectrum, which is invisible to the naked eye. The images allow them to detect subtle surface changes caused by objects like mud bricks a foot or less underground. In 2011, relying on infrared satellite pictures, a team from the University of Alabama, identified 17 potential buried pyramids, some 3,000 settlements, and 1,000 tombs across Egypt. At the 3,000-year-old city of Tanis, once a capital in the Nile Delta, they found evidence of hundreds of dwellings.
Not all ‘invisible’ sites show up in aerial photography. If a site is known but its extent not fully apparent, then a number of geophysical techniques can be used in these circumstances. Archaeological prospecting techniques such as ground penetrating radar, magnetometry and resistivity, work on the principle of detecting anomalies (foundations, burials, pits) beneath the ground surface. While satellite imaging may be set to revolutionise the site discovery process, old fashioned digging is still required to confirm the satellite finds.
However many sites are discovered by chance: farmers tilling their fields have discovered significant finds, like China’s Qin Terracotta Army, construction crews have unearthed sites, a Bedouin looking for a lost animal discovered the Dead Sea Scrolls instead and a group of boys investigating a hole made by a tree root in France revealed the caves of Lascaux.
Excavation of any traces of past human activity will destroy a site’s matrix or fabric, it is imperative that information is preserved with scrupulous recording. Archaeological techniques have advanced considerably over the last 150 years or so. In the nineteenth century, they were understandably crude by today’s standards, and the main objective was the recovery of finds rather than the study of past human behaviour.
Stratification is the principle that in a series of archaeological (or geological) layers those at the bottom are older than those at the top. The stratigraphy of an archaeological site is used as the basis for constructing its chronology.
There are two main systems of excavation employed, the box system and the open-area method. The box system employs the use of a grid of square trenches with squared timber beams left standing between them as a record of the stratigraphy on all four sides of the trench. The advantage of this method is that it provides a clear vertical sequence, which is especially useful at sites with deep deposits. Its disadvantage is that it can obscure large horizontal features. By contrast the open-area method is designed to uncover large areas so that their form and development could be understood fully. In this method timber beams are rarely used. Instead, sites are often excavated in strips. While this method is ideal for sites of limited depth, it can also be applied to sites that have deeper deposits. The advantage of the open-area technique is that it offers maximum exposure of each horizontal level at a site. Its major drawback is that excavators never actually see all the deposits together in a cut-away trench.
Chronology and Dating the Past
Archaeological evidence needs to be organised in a sequence before the patterns of cultural change can be understood; there are a series of dating techniques used by archaeologists to assess chronology.
Archaeologists working in historical periods often have a chronological framework defined by primary documentary resources, such as the king lists of Egypt. King lists, like that of the Palermo Stone were written by Ancient Egyptians about their own history, the list of kings and sequence of their reigns allows archaeologists to contextualise the artefacts that they find. Unless there is a direct association between archaeology and texts, such as an inscription found within a stratified deposit, documentary evidence should be used with caution because of the distance between documentary evidence and archaeology.
The idea behind this technique is the grouping of contemporary artefacts together in sub-groups in accordance to their features. These features can be: functional qualities, shape or the method of manufacture. These typologies were commonly used in cross-dating, that is, synchronising one region with another. The principle was that an object in a well-dated region (or site) such as Egypt could be used to date a level in another region. This method has a series of issues, the most significant of which is that objects imported form other areas may have been kept in use for a period of time before entering the archaeological record.
One of the best-known and most widely used scientific methods of dating is radiocarbon dating. Developed by Wilfred Libby in the late 1940s the science has been further refined over time. The principal is based on the decay of the 14C isotope, a carbon isotope which is present in all organisms. When an organism (humans, animals, plants and so on) dies, the amount of carbon decay can be calculated based on the known half-life the 14C isotope, which is 5730 years. So 5730 years after death, an organism would have approximately half the amount of 14C as it did when it was alive. After 11,460 years it would have a quarter of that amount, and so on. Therefore, the rate of decay is such that this method of dating is generally reliable to about 50,000 years before the present, though it can be pushed (if the samples and conditions are ideal) to 70,000 years.
Once excavated and all the material culture has been carefully recorded the question arises of what to do with the excavated structures. Should they be covered in again, or should they be preserved for posterity, and if preserved, what degree of conservation and restoration is permissible? This is similar to the issue that arises in connection with the removal of antiquities from their homeland to foreign museums, and there is no simple or generally accepted answer to this.
A question often asked is; considering how much has been found, how much is there left? Recent studies suggest that archaeologists have discovered a fraction of one percent of the archaeological sites all over the world. The record and safeguard of our shared cultural heritage continues to be paramount. Archaeology provides a more balanced record of the past, the historical record is often biased toward the wealthy and powerful, archaeology reveals these social prejudices and tells the story of those people that history has forgotten.
- Sarah Craig, Curator, Hellenic Museum
16 July 2015
Women in Warfare in the Ancient World: Some exceptional examples from 3 ancient civilisations
With the opening of Lemnos-Gallipoli 1915: Women in War installation to mark the ANZAC centenary of the Gallipoli campaign, we take a look at the roles women have played in warfare in the past.
Medical and nursing sisters of 3rd Australian General Hospital (3AGH) in the tent lines with patients. Lieutenant Colonel Sydney Jamieson may be the officer (left).
Today 15.4% of the Australian Defence Force permanent workforce are female, with all employment categories open to women since 2013 (Australian Government Department of Defence). Prior to 2013, some direct combat roles were not open to women, under Commonwealth laws. After a transition period of 3 years, all gender restrictions are expected to be lifted in 2016. Throughout history, the role of women in warfare has been much more limited. With the opening of our Lemnos-Gallipoli 1915: Women in War installation to mark the ANZAC centenary of the Gallipoli campaign, we take a look at some of the more involved roles women have played in warfare in the past, using a few incredible examples.
In our first instalment, we focus on a few examples from the ancient world to give you an insight into the legends and records of female warriors from all cultures. Keep in mind this is just a selection of the numerous records of female rulers, soldiers and warriors.
A family feud in ancient Egypt
The Ptolemaic Dynasty in Ancient Egypt is wrought with wars and marriage between family members. Male rulers were called Ptolemy, and most queens were called Cleopatra, making for a confusing family tree. Cleopatra II married her brother Ptolemy VI around 175 BCE, and had his children, including Cleopatra III. The throne was briefly taken by their brother Ptolemy VIII, but they were restored to power. Nearly 20 years later, Cleopatra II married this other brother, but he then married her daughter Cleopatra III several years after. Nearly ten years later, Cleopatra II drove her brother and daughter out of Egypt after leading a rebellion against them. She ruled the empire for three years until fleeing to Syria. In 124 BCE Cleopatra II reconciled with her brother and daughter and ruled with them. Very little is known about these family members except for their dates of rule, leaving much of the detail to the imagination.
Another Egyptian ruler, Queen Ahhotep II, was buried with weapons and 3 golden flies, usually given as rewards for military skill or bravery on the battlefield. It is not known whether these belonged to Queen Ahhotep II, who is thought to have lived around the 16th century BCE.
Armies and The Art of War in ancient China.
Ancient Chinese legend also includes several stories of women participating in warfare.
For 250 years, the Zhou dynasty was divided into 8 states that were constantly at war, causing this period to be known as the Warring States period (475-221 BCE). During this time Sun Tzu is thought to have written the lasting and influential book The Art of War for the King of Wu, Ho Lu. The principles of this book were tested by Ho Lu who trained an army of 180 women to prove anyone could become a warrior if trained.
Lady Fu Hao is remembered as a wife and mother but also as a military leader and politician during the Shang dynasty (1600-1040 BCE). She led campaigns against neighbouring regions, details of which were recorded on bones used for divination known as oracle bones. Her grave, discovered by archaeologists in 1976, held more than one hundred weapons.
The Lady of Yue, or Yuenu, was recruited by the King of Yue to train his officers in the art of sword-fighting. The officers then trained their own soldiers in her style, in preparation for war against the Wu state.
Disguises and deception in ancient Greece
You may know about the Amazons from Greek mythology already: the civilisation of warrior-women that was characteristically opposite to Hellenic culture in many ways. The Amazons were entwined in the foundation myths of the city of Athens, mentioned by Homer around the 8th century BCE and described by Herodotus in the 5th century BCE. This idea of a warrior-women race is echoed in many cultures and is sometimes seen as a symbol of ‘the other’ used as propaganda for the order of the day. However, archaeological excavations near the border of Russia and Kazakhstan have revealed burials of many women dating back over 2,000 years. These women, taller than the average height of the time, were buried with a variety of weapons including knives, bows and arrows, possibly supporting the idea of warrior women that travelled east as the Hellenic world expanded.
The Trojan War, thought to have occurred in the 13th century BCE, is known best for the Trojan Horse used to get the Greek army behind Trojan walls. This war gave rise to several accounts of women disguising themselves as men to fight. One of these women, Epipola, was stoned to death by the Greek army once she was discovered fighting for them.
The story of Artemisia, the Queen of Halicarnassus, has lasted through the writings of the historian Herodotus, who considers her to be a “particular object of admiration because she was a woman who played a part in the war against Greece”. The Persian invasion of Greece around 480 BCE is remembered most by the Battle of Salamis, where the Persian ships were overpowered by the navy of allied Greek city-states. Queen Artemisia commanded her own 5 ships that she contributed to the Persian navy. When, during the battle, an Athenian ship began to target her, she attacked a Persian ship giving the impression that she had changed sides and would fight for the alliance. The Persian king Xerxes, watching the battle from afar, thought she had attacked a Greek ship and congratulated her after the battle, when she returned to the Persians.
Pausanias, a 2nd century Greek traveller and writer, tells of the female poet Telesilla who gathered an army of women, slaves, old men and young boys, to defend Argos once the Spartans had massacred their army. According to legend, the Spartans left the city and Telesilla’s army untouched, fearing divine retribution if they killed women and the weak, or humiliation if they were defeated.
Aside from these stories, records of women from Roman, Assyrian, Israeli, Japanese and many other ancient cultures exist, but are almost always the exception to the rule of all-male armies.
18 March 2015
The jury that convicted Socrates
Ancient Athenian juries weren’t the 12 carefully selected peers they are today...
Bronze ballot disks used for voting in a trial. Some had a hollow rod in the middle and some were solid so jury members could easily conceal which one they placed in the urn as their vote.
A democratic jury:
In ancient Athens, the first jury was used in a trial in 590 BCE, the same time as political reforms that introduced the beginnings of democracy. The court system changed drastically over the next few hundred years, especially in the 5th century BCE, to become more and more a council of the people, rather than the aristocrats.
Who was part of the jury?
Each year, 6000 older citizens were chosen by lot to be potential jurors that year. A citizen was any free Athenian male over the age of 18, but for the purposes of the jury they had to be over 30. Each day, a jury of several hundred would be chosen by lot from those that showed up in the morning. As compensation, those that were selected were paid, making jury duty appealing to working men. The smallest recorded jury was of around 200 people, but on average there would be five 500-700 people, with the idea that it’s impossible to bribe that many men from different Athenian tribes. Juries could reach a few thousand people at times. During the trial the jury was separated from other spectators in the large courtrooms, and they were free to shout and heckle the defendant or prosecution as they spoke.
What was their role?
The jury listened to the speeches of the prosecution and defence and afterwards voted in favour of one side. There was no judge to guide their decision or inform the jury of the law. In fact, in some cases there was no law to follow, only the verdict of their conscience and an oath to the gods. The speeches made by the prosecution and defence were sometimes written by professional speech-writers and could be constantly interrupted by the shouts and heckles of the jury.
How did they vote?
Once both sides had been heard, the jury would cast their vote without discussion or deliberation. Several methods of voting have been recorded. It seems that originally voting was public, by throwing a pebble onto a pile for the defendant or the prosecution. By the early 5th century BCE, voting was secret. One way was to have 2 bronze tokens, each signifying either the prosecution or the defence. The jury member would place one in an urn for votes to be counted, and the other in another urn of tokens to be discarded. Another method was for each jury member to have one pebble and to approach two urns with his hands in fists, hiding the pebble. One urn was for the prosecution and one for the defence. The jury member would put a hand in each urn and drop the pebble as his vote without anyone seeing. The votes would be counted by randomly selected jury members and the side with the majority would win. There were no courts of appeal so the jury’s verdict was final. If the jury found the defendant guilty then a second vote would be held to determine his punishment. Both the defendant and the prosecution would suggest a punishment, and the jury would choose which one. Punishment could be anything from a fine to exile, imprisonment or death. In the case of Socrates, the prosecution offered the death penalty while Socrates suggested free breakfasts in the city square. After the jury voted, he was made to drink poisonous hemlock.
15 January 2015
Spotlight on: Costa-Gavras
As part of the 2015 program for the Summer Cinema, the Hellenic Museum screens Z: both a brilliant suspense thriller and a political cry of rage. Here we take a closer look at the film's director, Costa-Gavras.
Costa-Gavras is a Greek-French director and producer, most famous for the 1969 film Z. One of the few films to be nominated for both the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and Best Picture, Z explores the oppression associated with the military dictatorship in Greece in the 1960s and 1970s.
Costa-Gavras drew on his own personal experiences in directing the film. He was forced to leave Greece in the 1950s following the imprisonment of his father on political grounds. In his words, “everyone in the leftwing resistance was considered a communist” during the Greek Civil War. His father’s imprisonment meant that he could not attend university in Greece or obtain an American visa. Instead, he moved to France and studied film.
He went on to achieve great success in the world of cinema, having made 20 films in a career spanning half a century. His films have received a number of awards, including an Oscar for best screenplay adaptation and a Palme d’Or from Cannes. Costa-Gavras himself has been awarded a French knighthood and an honorary doctorate from the University of Thessaloniki.
Many of Costa-Gavras’ films tackle political themes, often criticising conservative governments. Costa-Gavras used his films as a means of political activism, explaining that “Some people sign petitions, others go to the streets – I do something as a film-maker.”
Based on the novel by Vassilis Vassilikos, Z depicts a state in which “the military banned long hair on males; mini-skirts; Sophocles; Tolstoy; Euripides; smashing glasses after drinking toasts; labor strikes; Aristophanes; Ionesco; Sartre; Albee; Pinter; freedom of the press; sociology; Beckett; Dostoyevsky; modern music; popular music; the new mathematics; and the letter ‘Z’, which in ancient Greek means ‘He is alive!’”
Other movies by Costa-Gavras have tackled similar themes in different countries. Missing is an 1982 film exploring the Pinochet coup in Chile in 1973 and the US involvement, through an American man’s search for his disappeared son. Amen, released in 2003, explored the silence of the Catholic Church in relation to the Holocaust during World War II.
Some of Costa-Gavras’ personal experiences as an immigrant also informed his 2009 film, Eden is West, focused on the story of an illegal immigrant’s attempts to reach Paris.
18 December 2014
How to: make parchment and vellum
Today ideas of a post-paper world are floating around, but what was used before paper was commonly available? Let us walk you through the process of making parchment and vellum.
Before paper was widely manufactured and used, scribes depended on parchment, the final product of an involved and costly process. In what might look like a morbid practice now, parchment and vellum were processed from animal skin into durable materials, without which we would not possess the wealth of knowledge that we have today.
At risk of sounding like a parchment ‘Do It Yourself’ guide, the value of parchment and vellum can’t be understood without a little know-how about its production. Depending on the production methods and the animal used, the finished product could vary greatly. The very finest skins, vellum, came from animals less than six weeks old, and freshly killed. Whether for parchment or vellum, the animal skin was first soaked in a solution of lime to soften it and loosen the hair which was then removed. The skin was then stretched on a wooden frame where it was scraped with a curved knife called a lunellum. During this process it was alternatively wetted and dried to create tension. The final step was to abrade the skin with pumice and treat it with a lime or chalk solution which made the pages whiter and allowed the skin to accept the ink pigments. The skin was then divided into sheets, with the number of sheets depending on the size of the skin and the sheets. Just to give an idea, an average calfskin provided three and a half medium sheets of parchment. The parchment could then be folded without becoming brittle, unlike plant-based papyrus. This allowed the folded pages of the book.
There are relatively few sources remaining which describe the Byzantine method of vellum production in particular. One of these is a letter from Planudes, a theologian, grammarian, rhetorician and head of the monastery school at Khora. The monastery held a great library and as a result much of Planudes’ correspondence dealt with sourcing the finest parchment for manuscripts. His letters offer insights into the practices and issues that surround parchment and vellum production. For instance, he insists that the finished vellum should not be treated with egg white. This practice, preferred during the Byzantine period, gave lustre to the pages but if the book became wet the egg white would flake and peel off, and with it the work of the scribe.
Given the time taken to make these as well as the materials and expertise needed, it’s not hard to imagine how highly valued these manuscripts would have been – and still are today.
4 December 2014
Four things your history teacher didn't tell you in school
Ancient Greece: a time of philosophy, poetry and geometry, right? Not quite. Here’s what your high school history teachers didn’t want you to know about the ancient civilisation that shaped ours.
Image: Nymphs have been depicted throughout history as a way of representing sexual encounters and female nudity through a socially acceptable medium. Federico Bonelli as Actaeon and Marianela Nunez as Diana with her Nymphs in Diana and Actaeon. Photographer : Andrej Uspenski/Royal Opera House
The Dionysiac Mysteries
Dionysiac Mysteries were rituals in honour of the god Dionysus. Celebrated with wine and revelry, this god had a wild side. The Mysteries were cult rituals characterised by dance, music and intoxicating drugs in an attempt to return to a natural state, without social inhibitions. These rituals were only for the initiated though, and the details have been lost with these ancient ravers.
Nymphomania is an aspect of Greek mythology that has lasted until today. Countless myths and art pieces were and still are based on nymphs. These female deities, found in woodlands and ponds, were known for their freedom and sexual encounters. Shown variably as carefree, aggressive, passionate and insatiable, nymphs were used as a way to depict sexual encounters in public spaces, without society’s censure. Throughout history nymphs, and the associated nymphomania, have been interpreted as symbols of females being both objectified and empowered.
The Wandering Uterus
Ancient Greeks believed that a woman’s uterus would ‘wander’ through her body, causing medical problems. Both Plato and Hippocrates – writer of the original Hippocratic Oath many doctors still take today – write about a uterus’ need to bear children, and if inactive for a length of time it would wander through the body causing hysteria and seizures. The term ‘hysteria’ was used historically to describe irrationality in a woman, excluding her from participating in democratic votes. To prevent her uterus from wandering, resulting in hysteria, woman were encouraged to have children young and often. To cure a wandering uterus, strange remedies were suggested to drive the uterus back to its original position.
Necromancy, meaning ritual communication with the dead, was attempted often for divination. To commune with the dead, it is thought that people would sleep on tombs, complete ritual practices, and visit oracles. It appears to have occurred in prehistoric times but the first written account is in Homer’s Odyssey. In this epic poem about Odysseus’ ten year journey home from the Trojan War, he seeks advice from the deceased prophet Tiresias. The goddess and enchantress Circe instructs him to dig a pit and fill it with offerings to the dead – milk, honey, wine and water. She tells him to pray to the dead and promise them sacrifices on his return home. He then has to sacrifice animals to the god of the Underworld Hades, and his wife Persephone. The souls of the dead gather out of the darkness, with Odysseus speaking to a few about their relations, lives and deaths.
18 November 2014
The ancient Greek Underworld: who made it out alive?
What do Dionysus, the god of wine; Herakles, ancient Greek strongman; and Orpheus, mortal musician have in common? The third and final piece in our series about the ancient Greek Underworld helps join the dots.
Image: Herakles, shown here in the Nemean Lion skin that he wore as armour, was one of the few to descend to the Underworld while still living, and to make it back out alive.
Over the last couple of weeks we’ve spoken about how the world of the living and the world of the dead are very separate places. To make the transition from one to the other requires elaborate funerary rites and, more basically, for one to be deceased. But that’s not true all of the time. In ancient Greek mythology, several heroes and immortals descended to the Underworld. But the harder part was often getting back out.
When we talk about characters of the Underworld, we can’t look past the goddess Persephone. Persephone was abducted by Hades, the god of the Underworld, to become his wife. When Persephone’s mother, Demeter, found out, her grief was felt world-wide. Plants stopped blooming and crops no longer grew, causing famine and desolation. Zeus intervened and Persephone was returned to her mother. However she had already eaten fruit from the Underworld, which meant it would always have a claim on her. An arrangement was struck that for a third of the year, Persephone would reside in the Underworld with Hades, and for the remainder of the year she would live on Mt Olympus with the main gods. Each year when Persephone returns to the Underworld, her grieving mother withholds grain and crops, brining winter.
As one of his 12 Labours, Herakles descended to the Underworld to bring back the three-headed guard dog Cerberus. Aware that no mortal had ever returned from the Underworld, Herakles performed religious rites celebrating Demeter and her daughter Persephone, queen of the Underworld. From a cave in Laconia, at the mouth of the Underworld, Herakles descended. The souls of the Underworld fled when they saw Herakles. When he reached the god Hades and asked to take Cerberus from the Underworld, Hades agreed with the condition that Herakles master the animal without weapons. Herakles overcame the monster with brute strength by wrestling it into submission.
When Dionysus, the god of wine, drama and revelry, wanted to bring the poet Euripides back from the dead to save Athens, he planned his descent into the Underworld. Aristophanes’ play The Frogs shows Dionysus asking Herakles for “roads, resting places, stews, refreshment rooms, towns and lodgings with the fewest bugs”. Instead, Herakles bluntly suggests to him several ways to die as the quickest route to the Underworld. He describes the unfathomably deep lake that must be crossed with an ancient ferry-man, Charon, who needs payment. There follow great snakes and savage monsters, then foaming seas of filth, where those who sinned unforgivably dwell. Before you get to the gates of Hades, Herakles describes, you’ll hear flutes and bands clapping amidst myrtle groves and sunshine. Dionysus travels through these into Hades’ halls and returns to the world of the living with another poet, Aeschylus, who knew better how to save Athens.
In Homer’s Odyssey, Odysseus encounters the world of the dead by following instructions given to him by Circe, a goddess and enchantress. Rather than descending to the Underworld, Odysseus travels to a certain land surrounded by cloud and mist, where he can meet with the souls of the dead. He pours libations of milk, honey, wine and water, then sacrifices sheep to attract the souls of the dead. The spirits emerged from the darkness with their wounds visible. The Underworld Homer describes is an unpleasant place. When speaking to Odysseus, the soul of the dead, Achilles says he’d “rather serve as a poor peasant without land, and be alive on Earth, than to be lord of all the lifeless dead”.
The musician Orpheus was so spectacular at playing the lyre that his music was able to tame the wilder beasts and even make the trees dance. When his wife Eurydice was fatally bitten by a snake, Orpheus played such sorrowful music that both humans and gods cried. He then ventured to the Underworld in the hope of using his music to bring his wife back. He was allowed in by Charon the ferryman, past the spirits and insubstantial shadows of those that dwelled in the Underworld. Orpheus used his music to sedate the three-headed guard dog Cerberus and to soften the hearts of Hades and Persephone. When Persephone agreed to allow Eurydice back to the world of the living, it was with one condition: that Orpheus should walk ahead of her and not turn back until they were both out of the Underworld. Virgil describes how “sudden madness seized the incautious lover” and after stepping into the light of the world of the living he looked back at her, but she was a step behind in the world of the dead. She cried out and then vanished “like smoke vanishing in thin air”.
7 November 2014
The ancient Greek Underworld: part two
From the world of the living to the world of the dead: funerals in ancient Greece.
Image: This white-ground lekythos is an oil flask, associated with women and their role in the funerary process. The technique of applying a white slip to the vase was exclusive to Athens, and reserved for burying with the dead. This vase depicts an Athenian woman preparing to visit the tomb of a deceased loved one, or alternatively, a bride preparing for her wedding that didn’t go ahead, due to her untimely death.
For the ancient Greeks, death meant a separation of the body and the soul, with one continuing to the Underworld. The soul, psyche or spirit of the deceased left the body as a puff of wind, before descending to Hades to live on as a one of countless “shades”, as Homer describes those living in the Underworld. So how did the living make sure their loved ones reached the Underworld?
The ancient Greeks saw death as a contaminating event. The house or street that a death had occurred in was seen as polluted, just as those who touched the deceased were. Even the water and fireplace of the house could be seen as contaminated. People caused different levels of contamination, depending on their role in society. A king’s death contaminated someone from every household; slaves and children were less pollutive than citizens and adults; and soldiers that died at war caused no pollution at all. To purify, contaminated people would wash with unpolluted water three days after the burial, and sprinkle the house of the deceased with clean water and soil.
For the most part, the funerary process was divided into three stages. The prosthesis was the laying out of the body, usually in their house for one day, to be viewed by friends and family. The body would have been washed, anointed with oil, dressed and often crowned by the older women of the family before being laid out. In this stage, women mourned by wailing and chanting, sometimes tearing at their hair and clothes to enact grief. The ekphora was a pre-dawn funeral procession from the house to the grave, outside the city walls. The men in the procession walked ahead of the body while the older women went behind, sometimes accompanied by musicians. The burial was the final stage with some descriptions including animal sacrifice at the graveside. Grave goods were often left in or on the grave. These could be offerings of honey, milk, wine, perfumes and oils in vases. The lekythos was a common shape for a funerary vase, often made specifically to be buried and not used in everyday life.
If the body was cremated, the ashes were still buried in a grave. A commemorative celebration followed at the house of the deceased, where people would feast and wear wreaths. More ceremonies are said to have taken place on the third, ninth and thirtieth day after burial. Performing a proper burial was important not just to honour the deceased but also to avoid punishment from the gods.
Monuments to the deceased were a way of honouring and remembering them. While the grave goods left by the mourners were seen only by them, grave markers were for the following generations. These markers went through phases of restraint and extravagance. Laws about the construction of grave markers were introduced and revoked, depending on the period. For instance, in Cicero’s Laws, he mentions that “no one shall make a tomb requiring more work than ten men can do in three days”.
In democratic Athens, state funerals were held to commemorate those that died at war. Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War, suggests that these followed the format of private funerals, with the prosthesis, ekphora and internment, however anyone could attend these. A public figure chosen by the people speaks a eulogy for those lost at war. Stone monuments with statues and lists of names marked these graves.
The funerary customs changed over time and between city-states, reflecting both the characteristics of each society and the ancient Greek belief of life after death in the Underworld.
Even though the world of the living and the world of the dead were separate, there were some that tried their hand at venturing to the Underworld before their time: up next in part three.
31 October 2014
The ancient Greek Underworld: A place of judgement, penance and retribution far removed from life on earth
What happens to us after we die? The age-old question still debated today, raising issues of religion and the meaning of life. Find out what the ancient Greeks had to say in our three part series about death, burial and the underworld.
Image: Ancient Greeks were often buried wearing wreaths as it was believed that those entering the Underworld wreathed would be feasted on their arrival. Gold myrtle wreath with a multi-petalled flower in the centre. 4th - 3rd century BCE. On display in Gods, Myths & Mortals at the Hellenic Museum
Ever wondered what it would be like in the Underworld? There’s no shortage of description in ancient Greek writings. Hesiod, in his Theogony, (around 700 BC) described Tartaros, the deepest part of the Underworld, “as far under the earth as the sky is above”. Tartaros, misty and enclosed by a beaten bronze wall, is roofed by the roots of the earth above it. Winds blow incessantly, battering its occupants, creating an eerie and monstrous atmosphere that is “terrible even for the gods”.
Hades, the ruler of the Underworld, lives in echoing halls guarded by a three-headed hound that devours anyone trying to leave the Underworld. His wife, Persephone, dwells there part of the year, out of reach of her mother Demeter. Her grieving mother annually strips the land of life and food, until Persephone returns to her in spring when she revives the plants and crops.
The goddess Styx lives nearby, at the limits of the sea, sky, earth and Tartaros. She lives separately from the rest of the gods, her power making her loathed by them. Water from the river Styx is used to seal the oaths of immortal gods. If broken, the dishonourable god enters a year of coma, followed by nine years of exile without nectar or ambrosia to feast on.
In the depths of Tartaros, far from all the gods, the Titans are imprisoned. Overthrown by Zeus and his siblings, this previous generation of gods were ruled by Kronos. When Zeus rose against his father, the two generations warred for ten years, until most of the Titans were beaten back and bound for eternity.
Aside from the immortal occupants of the Underworld, the souls of mortals dwell there. Homer saw life there as a miserable lot for most, the souls being no more than “fluttering shades”. Others saw it as a place of judgement, punishment and reward. Plato in the 4th century BC describes the soul as immortal, even if the body is not. As such, the soul experiences life in the Underworld as an individual entity. When a mortal dies, their soul is taken by a guardian spirit to an assembly place where they are judged, taken to the Underworld and undergo any punishment and purification required. The many possible experiences mean that the Underworld is a web of crossroads and forked paths, making the guardian indispensable. Those with impure souls from committing crimes of bloodshed are shunned and wander, guideless, in desolation until enough time has passed for them to move on to another place.
The judgement of immortal souls is done by three dead judges, the mortal sons of Zeus. The souls to be judged are naked, laid bare and anonymous, ensuring a king is given the same treatment as a farmer. Plato describes death as “nothing but the divorce of two separate entities, body and soul and when this divorce takes place, each of them is left in much the same state as it reached during the man’s life”. In this way, both the physical traits and the qualities of the soul are visible.
Once judged, the soul is conveyed along a certain river, depending on their judgement. All rivers flow into and from the Underworld. Those judged to be neutral travel along the river Acheron where they are purified, absolved of sins and rewarded for good deeds. Those who sinned unforgivably are hurled into the depths of Tartaros and never re-emerge. Those who sinned less severely are also sent to dwell in Tartaros but emerge after a period of penance. People who lived lives of exceptional virtue are released from Tartaros and dwell on the earth’s surface in beautiful surroundings, albeit without bodies.
In imagining the Underworld, ancient writers both channelled and influenced the beliefs of the ancient Greeks. Their understanding of life after death impacted their reaction to death itself, resulting in the distinctive mourning and funerary rituals – but that’s a topic for next time. Watch this space.
10 October 2014
QR codes: using modern technology in a historic space
QR codes and museums. We discuss the links between this innovative technology and historic space
Image: using QR codes in the Gods, Myths & Mortals collection
You may have already had a look at our Gods, Myths & Mortals exhibition, or maybe it’s still on your to-do list. Did you notice the QR codes next to some of the items? These QR (quick response) codes are our interactive companion to the exhibition. Just quietly, we’re pretty excited about them. They can be scanned by smartphones or tablets and link to extra information about the pieces. For each one, a short video appears, telling you about what you’re looking at, whether Picasso was influenced by this piece or what that symbol meant. Each item included in the QR tour is also part of an image gallery, connecting it to other pieces in the exhibition. For instance, an ancient figurine may be connected to a Byzantine icon, exploring the changes in representations of the human figure. But enough about the exhibition, what about these QR codes? Let’s start at the beginning.
What are QR codes?
QR codes, short for quick response codes, are a two-dimensional graphic code instantly connecting your phone or tablet to online content. This can be a webpage, blog, video, feedback form, game, social media page…the list is as long as the internet. This allows you to access relevant (and sometimes exclusive) information directly, rather than searching through your internet browser.
QR codes and the technology surrounding them are not exactly new, but they are being used in more and more innovative ways as the number of people using smart phones also increases.
How do you use QR codes?
If you have or can borrow a smartphone or tablet, then all you need to do is:
1. Download a QR scanner or reader.
2. Scan the QR code.
3. Explore the link.
Why QR codes?
So why do we use these? As an increasingly popular technology, QR codes are used as an on-the-spot point of access to what is on offer. As more and more people use smart phones, QR codes are a way of using what’s in our back pocket to reach extensive amounts of relevant information. Some organisations are using QR codes to replace paperwork, instruction manuals, and data collection. This can streamline processes, reduce paper use, and increase access to information from different locations. By using QR codes, wider access is available to resources and information, suitable for our right-here right-now lifestyle.
QR codes in museums:
QR codes are being used in museums and galleries around the world, as exhibition organisers look for new ways to connect visitors to the exhibition. They have been used as audio-visual tours in the Cleveland Museum of Art, Bologna’s Museum of Archaeology, the National Museum of Scotland and the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney. The Virginia Museum of Fine Arts used QR codes in their advertising campaign, creating an image made completely of QR codes that when scanned, linked to information about their upcoming exhibition. The Petrie Museum also used QR codes to encourage visitors to leave comments about the pieces they saw, creating a dialogue between visitors at different times, and adding to the history of the object. The contrast between historic objects and modern technology is just another way to interpret the pieces.
How are we using them at the Hellenic Museum?
We’ve chosen 20 items that give a snapshot of the Gods, Myths & Mortals collection of around 200 pieces. Each of the selected 20 have a QR code next to them that, which when scanned by your smartphone or tablet, will link you to our online content. You will see a video narrated by George Donikian telling you more about the pieces that isn’t available anywhere else at our museum. Recognise the name? The charismatic Greek-Australian journalist and news reporter points out some of the most interesting aspects and facts to about the objects. So when you look at these pieces, you don’t just read about them, you can take this chance to hear about them, discover them, and connect them to the rest of the exhibition. Encompassing so many periods and cultures, there are always multiple links to be drawn and observations to be made.
Want to check out what you have to look forward to when you visit the exhibition? Try out the QR code below to hear about a Cycladic figurine.
Image: scan the QR code above using any QR code reader, such as i-nigma, to preview the QR tour of Gods, Myths & Mortals
1 October 2014
The Greek War of Independence - for kids
Our recap of the Greek War of Independence: overthrowing just under 400 years of Ottoman rule in just under 400 words
Image: Steel saber with a horn hilt and a leather scabbard with silver gilt mounts. It was given by Theodoros Kolokotronis (1770-1843) to his comrade-in-arms Theodoros Leonardos.
Did you know that Greece was not always its own country? Contrary to what some people think today, Greece was not actually a state until 1822. Even in ancient times, what we call ‘Greece’ did not exist as a nation, but was an area of city-states that had their language and religion in common.
So what was happening in 1822 that changed all this? The Greek War of Independence. This rebellion against the Ottoman Empire gave Greek speaking people a national homeland for the first time in history.
Since the 15th century the land that we now call Greece had been occupied by the Turks. They held control for almost 400 years, but in the 18th century the idea of national freedom grew within the Greek speaking community. They wanted independence! With the help of Russia they revolted in 1770. Even though this failed, it started a movement of revolts and uprisings of Greek people trying to achieve freedom. They were inspired by the success of the French Revolution that had occurred in 1789 and the heroic poems of Greek fighters. A series of uprisings and movements lead to the beginning of the Greek War of Independence in 1821.
This time around they were more successful. The initial defeat of the leader of the rebels, Alexandros Ypsilantis, inspired people all over the Ottoman Empire to join the war for independence. Within a year they won control of the southern region of Greece and on March 25 1822 the rebels declared the independence of Greece. They established their own constitution and temporary government. The Turks tried three times over to invade the newly won territories in the next few years, but they were never successful.
Now, every year on March 25, the National Day of Greek Independence is celebrated. Towns and villages throughout Greece hold a school flag parade and schoolchildren march in traditional Greek costume and carry Greek flags.
When you wander around the Gods, Myths & Mortals exhibition, you will see many items that relate to the Greek War of Independence in some way or another. Gunpowder pouches, swords and even rifles that were used by the rebellious fighters are on display. There’s the sabre of Theodoros Kolokotronis, the Commander-in-Chief of the Greek forces; the pistols of Petrobeis Mavromichalis; and the memoirs of Nikolaos Kasomoulis, a leader and fighter in the uprisings. See if you can spot these pieces when visiting the museum!
24 September 2014
Growing up in Ancient Greece - for kids
Daydreaming about another life? Find out what it would have been like to grow up in ancient Greece! Written for kids about kids
Image: Gold child necklace of fine band with rosettes and a row of spear-head pendants. Late 4th c. BC.
Did you know that in ancient Greece children had very different lives to you? They were trained from a young age to be ready for adult life as a soldier, farmer, wife, or another position in society.
If you were born in ancient Greece there would be celebrations but you would not be named for at least a week. By the time children reached the age of 13 they were considered young adults.
Some children had toys very similar to ones you might have played with, such as toy horses on wheels, rattles, balls, dolls and even yo-yos! Different types of board games were also played like checkers, and they were very competitive. It was believed that losing one of these games meant that the gods weren’t on your side. Some houses also had pets like dogs, birds, mice, turtles and goats.
You may have heard that ancient Greek parents preferred to have boys rather than girls. This is because a son could look after them as they got older and inherit their property, but a daughter would be married, with the parents paying for her dowry. The dowry was a sum of money or a collection of items given to the husband to help look after his wife.
In ancient Greece, where you were born had a big impact on your upbringing. In Sparta, boys stayed at home until they were 7 when they were taken to the barracks to be trained as soldiers. They would stay until they were 30 years old, training as a soldier and eventually fighting for their city-state. Girls form Sparta were also trained to use a weapon and fight. This was in case the women had to protect the city while the men warred somewhere else. In this way, most education in Sparta was focussed on creating warriors capable of defending their city and the Spartan way of life.
In other places in ancient Greece like Athens and Corinth, some children were educated to create good members of society. If you were a wealthy boy in one of these cities you would have started school when you turned 7 and learned reading, writing, maths, science, music and poetry. As well as this, boys and young men were very active and participated in competitions of running, jumping, wrestling and spear-throwing. This helped to prepare them for training to become soldiers. Some girls were also taught to read and write and do maths, as they had to be able to run the household once they were married. Mostly, girls were taught household tasks such as weaving and cooking.
Image: Toy. Egypt 5th-7th c.
Girls in ancient Greece were married very young, around 13 to 16 years old. Their husband was chosen by their father and was usually much older than them. On the day before her wedding, the bride would sacrifice all her toys to the goddess Artemis, who was associated with young women, to show she had grown up. Unless she was Spartan, she would spend most of her life indoors looking after the household. She would have her own rooms and would very rarely be seen publicly except for religious festivities or with other women. Poorer women would be outside more often, as they did not have slaves to work for them.
As boys grew up, they would have to work extremely hard earning money for their household. They could work as fisherman, sailors, farmers and artisans. Not all of them went to school. The ancient Greeks were often at war, calling on most men to fight at some point in their lives.
Do you think you would have like to grow up in ancient Greece? Keep in mind that life was very different for boys and girls, for the rich and the poor, and for people of different cities. Would you like to have been a Spartan boy? Or perhaps a wealthy Athenian girl? Or maybe you wouldn’t like to have grown up in ancient Greece at all!
19 September 2014
Ancient Greek Myths: the who, what and why
From Homer to Harry Potter, what is it about ancience Greek myths that make them resonate? We take a shot at explaining why their star hasn't faded over thousands of years... with some of your favourite gods and heroes featured in Gods, Myths & Mortals: Greek Treasures Across The Millennia
Image: Attic black-figure Siana cup with scene of Theseus wrestling with the Minotaur. Attic workshop. Attributed to the workshop of of the Pyri Painter. 560-550 BC.
The first thing to know about ancient Greeks mythology is that they had a polytheistic religion, meaning that they believed in and worshiped many different gods and goddesses. Greek mythology had no formal structure, except for the various festivals held in honour of the gods, and there was no sacred book or code to live by. Temples were constructed however, for worship of certain gods and goddesses, often the patron deity of the town.
Greek myth was a form of storytelling and it had several uses in antiquity. The myths attempted to explain the origins of the world and recurring natural phenomena, which were often attributed to the moods and actions of the gods. Take the seasons, for example, instead of understanding that the world revolves on an angle around the sun, ancient Greeks believed the difference in seasons was caused by the grief and joy of Demeter, goddess of the harvest. Myths were also used to guide people through certain stages in their life, sustaining social values and customs. Now we can use them to find out what the people of ancient Greece believed in and valued.
Myths also detailed the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines and mythological creatures. The most powerful Greek gods were known as the twelve Olympians and were believed to live on the highest mountain in Greece, Mount Olympus. From this spot they ruled every aspect of human life. Believed to have the appearance and personality of humans, the stories surrounding the gods and goddesses were characterised by arguments, jealousy, love and revenge. As time went on, the myths surrounding each figure grew increasingly complicated and interconnected.
The belief system of the ancient Greeks extended beyond the immortal gods and goddesses to mortal heroes. These heroes, such as Herakles, Theseus and Perseus, fit into a certain type of ‘hero myth’, as it has come to be known, that followed a common structure. Usually, the hero would have peculiar circumstances surrounding their birth, have a calling to action setting them on their adventure, overcome obstacles and challenges with special talents they were equipped with, be aided by the gods and goddesses, and return having succeeded in their mission. This structure is still used today in many comics, novels and films. Think Harry Potter: marked as a toddler as destined for extraordinary things, equipped with special skills and unique items, aided by higher powers, and overcoming obstacles.
Image: Harry Potter English Australian series. Copyright B.Davis 2003
But how were these myths communicated? The earliest ones were part of an oral tradition that began in the Bronze Age, and their plots and themes gradually developed as written literature of the archaic and classical periods rose to prominence. The first written record of Greece, known to us, comes from Homer’s Iliad. Most likely produced in the 8th century BCE, it tells us of the mythical Trojan War as a divine conflict as well as a human one. In this, the gods and goddesses used humans as their pawns, took sides and warred among themselves.
You may wonder why these myths are so important today, over 2000 years later. The characters, stories, themes and moral lessons of Greek mythology have influenced art and literature for thousands of years. They appear in Renaissance paintings and writings such as in Botticelli’s Birth of Venus, Raphael’s Triumph of Galatea and Dante’s Inferno. Modern plays, novels, television programs, movies and even advertisements also often refer to Greek gods, goddesses, heroes and their stories. Think for example about the television series Lost and Charmed, which both have version of the mythological explanation of how the world was created, or of Xena: Warrior Princess, a television series set in a fantasy world dominated by Greek gods and mythological creatures, and of the Battlestar Galactica franchise. It is hard to look past the everyday references to Greek mythology, such as the brand names Nike and Amazon. Even heroes we know today have their foundation in ancient myth, from the structure of their story to the ideas they embody.
As well as their lasting influence on art and literature, the myths capture ideas and aspects of human nature that are still relevant today, and can be used to compare our contemporary values to those thousands of years ago.
8 August 2014
Places of Abandon
Throughout history there have been locations that, once inhabited by flourishing populations, have then been deserted, leaving historians with little to no explanation of why. In Gods, Myths & Mortals, some of these historic places of abandon feature in the pieces that survived, leaving us with small traces of another time and wondering at the lives and stories that passed before us.
Image: Gerard Mercator (1512 - 1594) Map of Greece, 16th c. Tinted etching on paper
Location: Cyclades. On the map: an island group located in the south Aegean Sea. Time: first inhabitants most likely came from Asia Minor around 5000 BCE
Sometime around 1650 BCE there was massive and cataclysmic eruption of a volcano on what is now the island of Santorini. Preceded by earthquakes of a magnitude of 7 on the Richter scale, which destroyed the town and created 9 meter high tidal waves, the eruption itself released an estimated 15 billion tons of magma into the atmosphere, making it the largest volcanic eruption of the last 10,000 years. Following this disaster, the town of Akrotiri was completely covered in volcanic ash. As such it remained well preserved until it was excavated for the first time in 1967 CE. However, unlike what archaeologists found at Pompeii, there were no bodies at Akrotiri. There was evidence of an attempt to clear rubble, which suggests that there time for the residents to abandon the area before the final eruption. Akrotiri has been suggested as the possible origin of Plato's Atlantis legend, as the island partly disappeared into the sea after the volcano erupted.
We do not know why, but around 1250 BCE there is evidence of destruction and abandonment all around the Aegean. Palaces were abandoned, communities migrated and literacy disappeared. The Cyclades largely followed this trend, but returned to some degree of importance around 800 BCE, by which time a new, distinct society was in the making.
The last remnants of Ancient Greek civilisation in the region finally disappeared in the 5th and 6th centuries CE, when many of the temples were turned into Christian basilica, only to return to prominence in the 20th century when excavations revealed the importance of the area.
1 August 2014
Benaki Museum Director, Angelos Delivorrias, picks his top three
When asked to name drop his favourite piece in the Gods, Myths & Mortals collection, Benaki Museum Director Angelos Delivorrias gave us three
From left to right: Manuscript of Nikolaos Kasomoulis military memoirs from the Greek Revolution 1822-1833; Gold Kylix with repoussé representation of running hounds. Made in the manner of Mycenaean models of the Late Helladic II-IIIA 1 period (15th-early 14th c. BC); Marble crouching female figurine-pendant, perhaps from the Peloponnese Middle-Late Neolithic period (5800-4500 BC)
I’ve been asked this question countless times and I always give exactly the same answer: unaffected by the usual aestheticism… I consider that all the objects in the Museum are complementarily on a par with each other. Regardless of their age, their material value and their rarity. That’s why it is difficult for me to pick out just one of the exhibits in Melbourne, which is, moreover, something that I consider to be anti-scientific. Because all these exhibits together refer, allusively of course, to individual chapters of a single narrative, so that they are all together basic components of its continuity and its cohesion. However, if you insist… I would be obliged to spell out in detail why I would choose at least 20 of the works in the exhibition. Certainly, it would be impossible for me to limit myself to fewer than the following three: the extremely rare Neolithic pendant representing the great Mother Goddess of prehistory, because it also signals the awakening of research interest in the remote Greek past; the gold Mycenaean kylix with the hounds, which emblematically imprints Antonis Benakis’s immense love of the museum he created, despite the disputes between specialist scholars as to its interpretation; the manuscript memoirs of Nikolaos Kasomoulis, a precious historical testimony of the Greek Struggle for Independence, which describes the heroic Exodus from Missolonghi that had shocked the consciousness of the age and had invigorated internationally the various Philhellenic movements.
Gods, Myths & Mortals opens Friday 12 September
Authentication and Conservation
If you want to purchase an object, research it, exhibit it, loan it to another museum or in any way use it to tell a story - you have to understand what it is made of
The museum recently took a look at some innovative equipment used in conservation and archaeology: the pXRF. Short for Portable X-ray Fluorescence, this equipment can tell you the elemental composition of a material – whether it is a painting, vase, or precious jewellery. Understanding the composition of an object can illuminate the character of a civilisation, especially relevant to us as we plan the upcoming exhibition of the Benaki collection, with items spanning nearly 8000 years.
Heading to a workshop about the pXRF hosted by an industry expert, I expected 8 hours of chemistry and physics. What I got was a new understanding of how light and colour are formed and their impact on our understanding of the world around us. Let me explain this as best I can. You may know already that no material has a colour; instead they have the capacity to visibly reflect some wavelengths of light, and absorb others (or reflect it at an energy too low to make visible light). It is the reflected light that is the colour visible to us. Between red and violet on the electromagnetic spectrum, the wavelengths are visible as light. When these wavelengths meet a material – say a leaf – the light is absorbed except for the waves of that particular leaf’s green which are reflected and visible to us. A white jumper is reflecting all of the visible light, whereas a black car is not visibly reflecting any. Light can be described in terms of photons that can act like waves or particles. Infrared and ultraviolet (UV) radiations are outside of the visible spectrum, but are still affecting us, most notably in the UV rays of sunlight. X-radiation is small enough and of high enough energy to pass through us when we get an X-ray, forming a shadow image on the image plates used in X-radiography.
This behaviour of light brings us to the pXRF spectroscopy equipment used by some museums. If you want to purchase an object, research it, preserve it, exhibit it, loan it to another museum or in any way use it to tell a story – you have to understand what it is made of. For example, in the upcoming exhibition from the Benaki collection, a ceramic vase tells a completely different story to a metal bowl. The story of an object ranges from the materials local to an area to the technology available at its time of manufacture to the use of those resources in domestic, liturgical or burial items. Pieces of jewellery made of precious metals have different connotations to those made of lesser metals, just as textiles using gold thread have a different meaning to dyed textiles. Understanding these materials can mean extensive research without the guarantee of a definitive answer. Who’s to tell us what pigment a painter used 500 years ago when we know many of similar appearance were available? The pXRF can analyse the materials of an object using X-radiation, measuring the radiation emitted by the object and matching that with a known database of elements and their emissions. Sounds complicated? The science of it is, but its use is quite straightforward. Instead of destructively removing a sample from an object, these are portable and can be taken directly to the object without harming it. A reading can take 30 seconds, but for the sake of accuracy 3 minutes is more appropriate. Once you have this information, it can help you understand what an object was made of, how it was made, why these materials were used, and the item can be compared with objects of a similar time, place, purpose or material.
Aside from its contribution to our understanding of an item, knowing an object’s composition can be integral in its authentication. Forgeries and fakes are always topical in museums, galleries and private collections. As these are living resources in understanding the past and present of others and our selves, museums and galleries have a responsibility to house the authentic and the original. Knowing the materials of an object with the scientific accuracy provided by the pXRF can substantiate a claim that an item is a forgery or add evidence to its authentic status. A good example is the use of titanium white pigment in paintings purporting to be from earlier than the 20th century. Although commonly used now, titanium white was not available until the 1920’s, and its presence in earlier paintings can sometimes indicate a forgery. The importance of correctly identifying a forgery or mis-attribution can not be overstated, as the longer an item is in a museum collection the more the reputation of the museum adds to its supposed authenticity. In this way, museums have some power in designating authenticity, just as they have a responsibility to ensure it.
So if you wanted to know what people 6000 years ago were eating out of, when a certain civilisation starting mining gold, what pigments your favourite artist used to paint, or what women 200 years ago were wearing to their weddings, ask the object. Just by knowing what an item is made of, so much can be told about it, the society that produced it and our capabilities as a civilisation.
- Gabrielle Fanning, HM team
Image courtesy of the Benaki Museum: analysis equipment used by the conservation department at the Benaki Museum
15 April 2014
Protecting The Past Is The Way Of The Future
How the digital age is keeping the past alive
The practice of protecting the past is looking toward the future with the use of apps and mobile technology to aid conservators. While some see conservation of museum objects and historical sites as a profession of living-in-the-past, it is increasingly using social media and apps to their potential, creating a more inclusive and effective practice.
But what does a conservator need in an app or program? It’s a question that has been thrown around blogs and forums for the last few years, and is gradually being addressed. Portability is one of the most obvious aspects of mobile technology to help conservators. From working in a lab or exhibition spaces to treating objects at archaeological digs or remote sites, having the right equipment at all times is sometimes just unrealistic. Using tablets and apps means that colour charts, information on chemicals and mould identification tools – to name just a few - are accessible and increasingly universal. Durability is another important aspect of a conservator’s tools. While you may not see iPads as icons of durability, when compared to piles of paper for condition reports competing with the wind and dirt of an archaeological dig, tablets win again. Recording object conditions or origins accurately is another integral part of conservation, aided by tracing and 3D imaging apps such as iDraw or AutoCAD that are superseding graph paper and measuring tapes.
Away from on-site or lab conservation, conservators also play a role in preventing and/or identifying art crimes. The Italian Heritage Police, managing one of the largest stolen art databases in the world, have introduced an app for anyone to use connecting the public with police and the database. Using the app, anyone can upload a photo they took of a suspected stolen artwork and the heritage police will compare it to their archives. This is taking the use of websites such as the Art Loss Register to the next level by being portable, accessible and contributing to a collaborative effort.
Social media also has its undeniable uses in conservation, with Dr. Monica Hanna’s efforts to protect Egyptian heritage using her twitter account a recent example of its effectiveness. Tweeting about looting occurring at specific sites, Dr. Hanna draws the attention and help of locals, activists and archaeologists. This use of social media to raise awareness in the public also raises the awareness of the government, promoting media coverage and official action, in this case the stationing of security at the site.
Far removed from taping objects together in a museum basement, conservation is becoming an increasingly well-connected practice, involving the public more and more and utilising programs to be more effective. This is all contributing toward a conscious effort for the protection of cultural heritage to be everyone’s responsibility.
- Gabrielle Fanning, HM team
Bringing the streets inside: the latest exhibition at Chapel Off Chapel.
From paintings and photographs to sculpture and soundscape, last night’s opening of Art Town at Chapel Off Chapel captured the sights and sounds of Windsor and Prahran. Following several weeks of live art sessions, the exhibition produces a dialogue between artists, the surrounding community and the creativity of the neighborhood.
Removed from the privacy of a studio, the works have an undeniably communal feel about them. This begun with weeks of productivity on the streets of Commercial Rd, Chapel St and Greville St, where easels were set up and artists positioned. Outside the Town Hall a craft station with tables of materials invited passersby to make miniature replicas of rooms and spaces, which became individual, snapshot worlds. On opening night, the dioramas were displayed hanging from the ceiling, stacked on top of each other, facing out, provoking both the desire to be seen, and to peer in. There was also video work of skaters, who crisscrossing on a half pipe, spray painted wooden paling, capturing their movements in multiple mediums.
The outcome? A very inside-out world that fostered a dwelling of the Chapel St community, or in other words: art mirroring life, mirroring art.
- Gabrielle Fanning & Chloe Wilson, HM team
The Daily Dig
Hannah Gwyther explores the nature of the dig as a member of the excavation team last year at Zagora, an Early Iron Age Site on the island of Andros.
There is nothing to make you feel a part of a team quite like a communal 5 am wakeup, sleepy breakfast and slightly terrifying drive around cliff faces to the top of an ancient precipice. From there we sit, huddled into our dust protecting scarves, waiting for the first fingers of dawn to break over the Aegean, illuminating the iridescent islands of the Cyclades shimmering in the distance beyond.
With the mountains gleaming, car doors are opened, backpacks are put on, lunch and other supplies are divided up, and the half hour trek down the hillside to our promontory begins – and we all slowly start to wake up. The ritual walk is almost a step back through the ages. We begin at the local Church of Agia Triada, moving through the farmland, past flocks of shoats (rather unscientific classification of something resembling Goat X Sheep), down across little dried-up streams, with sunlight bouncing off the schist stone that dominates the landscape. With laughter and chatter in the air we scramble down ‘Heartbreak Hill’, troop past the old low lying schist shepherd huts, and down through the terraces to Zagora. By the time we enter our windswept site, it almost feels as if we have been transported back in time. Ancient walls emerge amongst the chaos of centuries of shepherd walls and fences, and Early Iron Age houses are just visible beneath the tangle of thorn and oak. Suddenly you realise that you are a part of something very special, you are allowed a rare insight into the lives and the landscape of a group of people living almost 3000 years ago.
With our wheelbarrows, buckets, picks, trowels and brushes we make our way across the site to measure, record and dig down further into the past. We slowly and methodically uncover bits of ancient peoples’ everyday lives and their township, adding to our knowledge of how these people lived. After a careful day’s excavation in the intense heat or gale-force winds, we bag and label our finds, and a few lucky people lug them up the hillside to make it to the museum before closing time. We then secure our trenches against the elements, stow away our tools and ready ourselves for the hike back up.
The afternoon sees us emerge back into our sleepy seaside village sporting trendy ‘dust-tans’, new rips in our dig clothes and voracious appetites. Plates of ‘saganaki’, ‘gyros’, ‘patates’, and Fix and Mythos beers line the tables as we gradually wash off the dust in the ocean and recover from the day. Dig books are opened, and the day’s events recorded and discussed over another chunk or two of feta. As dusk envelopes the olives and settles over the calm sea, the cicada chorus lessens and we retire to our rooms to rest, with the thrilling anticipation of what we just might find tomorrow...
Zagora is an Early Iron Age Site on the island of Andros and was occupied between approximately 900 and 700 BCE. The Zagora Archaeological Project is run by the University of Sydney Dept. of Archaeology and the Australian Archaeological Institute at Athens, in collaboration with the Athens Archaeological Society. It receives major financial support from the Australian Research Council. The Powerhouse Museum is a major contributor to the project and its educational outreach work: see http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/zagora/
Hannah Gwyther is a University of Melbourne Graduate in Archaeology and Curatorship, who was a member of the excavation team in 2013 and is currently a volunteer at the Hellenic Museum. Images courtesy of Hannah Gwyther, 2013: (top) Standing on the top of the spoil heap, this soil is later reused to back-fill the trench for conservation and preservation requirements; (bottom) sunrises during the walk to Zagora.
A Pop-Up World
Popping up in a space near you.
We can enable them, read them, block them, and book them. They are pop-ups, and from children’s books to Internet ads, they alter and influence space in ways that have become synonymous with now. For the last three weeks, we’ve had one sitting in the garden. Designed and built by Hickory, it’s a prototype for innovation and acceleration in modular construction, and it’s hanging out here, awaiting restaurateur Con Christopoulos and the crowds every Saturday evening as part of the Summer Cinema.
Another pop-up, The Cube, tours Europe and sets up locale on the sites of opera houses and palazzas from Brussels to London, adding momentarily to the landscapes of parks and cities alike. But where do pop-ups come from, and why are we so fascinated by them?
Walking through a city is in many ways akin to walking through a museum: Art Deco; Gothic revival; Victorian; Modernism. On the other side of this is the pop-up: springing up overnight, and sometimes only for a night. It is movable, transient and adaptable, just like society right now. Some permanent buildings visibly represent this fluidity already, such as a number of those with LED screens, designed to allow external and internal environments to be overlayed and projected via architecture. Pop-ups enable a new type of building again. But there is something quite human about them. They are not confined or based upon any one particular design; rather, the pop-up is a way of building. They exist upon what is already in place, add to it, combine it, transform it, convert it, recycle it and collaborate with it. Pop-ups move as we move, and this is what makes them perfect for today.
It is not only the pop-up space that mirrors today, it is also the way of thinking. Logistically, pop-ups are generally less expensive to run and staff, and this allows them to be a launching pad for ideas and a lab for experimentation. Chefs are able to move their restaurant outside of their home base, such as the Danish Noma and New York based Le Cirque; or to test new concepts before committing to a permanent structure, such as Andrew McConnell’s 2013 Supernomal Canteen. For Hickory, this meant augmenting the UB system that was created for them by architect Nonda Katsalidis. The pop-up they built for Con Christopoulos at the Museum is a prototype of increased safety and of speed of production, and of reduced material and energy waste. From perfecting their design, they can now install apartment blocks and offices in just days.
Yet inspiration is not confined to any particular industry, it reaches out to the wider public, to guests as well as participants and creators in their own right. Spin-offs such as Restaurant Day, the global calendar where anyone can turn their private location into a restaurant for 24 hours, are an example of how the pop-up is reigniting the community element of dining. Bringing people together over food while offering an experience that is unique to time and place moves society from the habitual to the memorable: and there is no sign of the pop-up take over slowing down.
- Chloe Wilson, HM team
Everyone has a favourite Bond
Bond has two weeks left in Melbourne, and counting.
Do you know what’s cool? The DB5 Aston Martin used by Sean Connery’s 007 in ‘Goldfinger’, currently on display as part of ‘Designing 007 – 50 Years of Bond Style’ at Melbourne Museum. Do you know what’s cooler still? The 1/3-sized replica created using a 3D printer, also on display. I almost missed seeing both of these covetable objects because when it comes to attending exhibitions, I sometimes have a problem with timing. I remember seeing the giant billboard announcing the exhibition’s run (1 November – 23 February) in early 2013 during one of my morning commutes along Melbourne’s Best Tram Line (i.e. the 96). The exhibition’s subject piqued my interest, so I promised myself I would not only visit Bond’s lair, but would do so in a timely manner. Cut to 2 February, the third last weekend of the exhibition’s run. Oh well, at least I made it. I loved seeing the storyboards, costumes, gadgets, and the progression of filmmaking over the last 50 years.
Bond officially departs the city in two weeks, so if you're after quality time with the world's most beloved spy, don't miss it.
- Nicolette, Culture Advisory Panel
David Sedaris in Melbourne
Nicolette from our Culture Advisory Panel checked out author David Sedaris at Hamer Hall last week.
In this overwhelmingly digital age, where attention spans are short and most of us own at least two touch screen devices to keep ourselves entertained or rather, distracted, it seems impossible that a man on a stage, with only pieces of paper for accompaniment, could entertain an audience big enough to fill Hamer Hall. For hours. This is the magical genius, though, of David Sedaris.
Reading from his latest collection 'Let's Explore Diabetes with Owls', pieces he's had published in the New Yorker and his own diary, Sedaris had the crowd simultaneously in stitches, drawing sharp intakes of breath during more risqué passages, and really, just hanging on his every word. He even had most of us coffee snobs feeling slightly sheepish, when we fell for his story about finding the best coffee in Melbourne, in a little place at the 'Paris' end of the city... called McDonald's. He played on our coffee pride, had us waiting to see which of our amazing establishments he'd fallen in love with, and then delivered the delicious punch line. We should have been insulted, but we weren't. We loved it. We loved him. So, if you missed Sedaris during his January 21 performance, don't let it happen again.
Delphi Guide to a Melbourne Summer
Our young arts panel spent extra leisure time to bring you the low down on what's what over summer in Melbourne.
While all the ports and bays are thriving, and the hot topic moved from beating the Brits at their own game to Serena Williams being defeated at the Australian Open, we looked at the best places to dine near the sea. There's Station Street Trading Co. for breakfast in Port Melbourne, the latest DOC for pizza in Albert Park, and the ever popular Fish Tank on Church Street in Brighton.
Arts wise, on here at the Hellenic Museum in early March will be new works by George Raftopoulos and Michelle Mantsio as part of the Summer Arts Long Weekend. There are also summer programs at TarraWarra and Heidi, and exhibitions at Bendigo Gallery and Melbourne Museum that are finishing up in February. City galleries, from Craft Victoria - with Troy Emery, Bonus Card and John Brooks - as well as Edmund Pearce and Dianne Tanzer have all got their doors open and exhibitions on.
Although music festivals are in abundance at this time of year, don't forget to check out the Zoo Twilights, with a line up of local and international music acts, as well as the program of free outdoor concerts from the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra at the Sidney Myer Music Bowl. In many ways, it feels like summer's only just beginning.
Professor Chris Gribbin is running a Classics Summer School from 6 - 10 January, 2014. We ask him the hard questions on antiquities, Socrates and life.
Your favourite antiquities piece?
One of my favourite pieces is the Tomb of the Diver, from Paestum in Italy (which used to be the Greek town of Poseidonia). The walls of the tomb were decorated with scenes from a symposion – an ancient Greek dinner party. Although the art is not as sophisticated as some of the public art, it provides a fascinating snapshot of daily life in antiquity. My favourite pieces are always the ones that tell us about the ordinary people.
What do students take away from your classes?
One of the things students often tell me is that they’re amazed by how many things really haven’t changed that much in the last 2,500 years. The people we meet in the ancient texts, the problems they had to deal with and the way they made sense of the world are often no different to what we see today. But sometimes you also come across things that are really hard to relate to, like slavery. Understanding what’s stayed the same and what’s changed since antiquity is a great way to understand both the ancients and ourselves.
What were some of the big issues in Ancient Greece that are still affecting society today?
The ancient Greeks worried about social justice and the distribution of wealth. The Greeks had to carefully manage international relations. In Athens, people worried about how to create a society where people had the freedom to live good lives. Some of the details change, but we’re still struggling with many of the same questions.
How important will the Benaki collection be to Melbourne?
It’s really exciting for Melbourne to be able to host these pieces. For me, being able to see genuine articles from another time really helps to bridge the gap between now and then. These pieces will provide a point of connection for Melbourne, not just with antiquity, but with all of Greek history.
Why would Socrates win an argument?
According to Plato, Socrates said that he was wiser than other people because he knew that he knew nothing. Other people also knew nothing – but unlike Socrates, they didn’t realise it. When you start from an assumption that you know nothing, it opens you up to really hearing what other people have to say. That helps you see when they haven’t thought through what they’re saying. Learning to argue like Socrates is about making the part of us which jumps straight to an answer quiet and discovering how to ask powerful questions.
Just what is the Human Flourishing Project?
Aristotle set himself the project of working out the best way we could live our lives. He covered a broad range of topics, from our personal lives to our relationships, our working lives and our community as a whole. His answers still provide a powerful vision and have even influenced recent work by the United Nations to improve the lives of people in the developing world.
What sort of people enrol in the Summer School
The Summer School attracts people from all sorts of backgrounds and all sorts of ages. Classes are relaxed and assume no prior knowledge. So everyone’s welcome. One of the fun things about the school is that it brings all these people with different perspectives together to learn about the ancient world.
For more information about the classes, or to sign up, head over to: http://classics-archaeology.unimelb.edu.au/community/summer-school/
Flight at the Benaki Museum
What happens after dark at one of the world’s most prestigious cultural institutions?
In preparation of things to come, we’re watching Flight at the Museum. The short film was produced by Emptyfilm and Benaki Museum to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the E. Venizelos Airport in Athens. The film was screened at Clermont Ferrand Short film Festival, Bristol Encounters UK, Seoul SIYFF and won an honorary distinction in Drama Short film festival in Greece.