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Perfectly Perplexing Pyxides

December 6, 2017

 

 

Dating its beginnings to roughly 3000 BCE, the Early Bronze Age of the Cycladic Islands saw the rise of a rich and complex civilisation in the Aegean Sea pre-dating the Minoans on Crete in the south.

 

Integral to the understanding of any society is the manner in which the dead were treated. Burials from the Early Cycladic, primarily Early Cycladic I (ECI) and Early Cycladic II (ECII), period most commonly feature pyxides such as the one in our collection. Pyxides are spherical or cylindrical containers with a lid, at times found with lugs on either side, decorated in various patterns and constructed out of  variety of materials. ECI saw the appearance of basic pyxides with rectilinear incisions, possibly in imitation of wood or basketry in regards to herringbone patterns, with the geometric designs filled with a chalky white substance. Pyxides became more squat in ECII and the first painted decorations appeared, though the patterns remained simple.

 

Other than pyxides, other items commonly found in Cycladic burials during this period include marble vases and figurines, small pottery vases, bronze tools, silver vessels, bone and stone jewellery, razors, spatulae, tweezers, pierced beads, and lead models and figurines.

 

The dead were distinctly separated from the living, but the consideration taken in choosing the location of cemeteries, in that they were located on infertile slopes to preserve their structure and near settlements and thus the living,  indicates the importance of the dead and some manner of theological belief in an afterlife. The graves themselves were primarily of the cist variety; stone-lined pits dug into the ground wherein the body or bodies would be placed on their side in a contracted position and any grave goods would then be placed within and near the head. A lack of settlement items deters from a holistic understanding of whether the items found in graves were used during an individual’s lifetime, if they were produced solely for burials or, perhaps, a mixture of the two. There does exist an apparent class divide amongst burials when considering the quality and size of graves and of grave goods and it remains uncertain what, if anything, pyxides held within them, though their compact size does lend itself to the belief that they would have contained jewellery and possibly cosmetics if not general storage for ancient knick-knacks, in keeping with the practise of burying t